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Competition, Consumer Trust and Consumer Choice Review (CCT)

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CCT Review Wiki Workspace Page
Find the latest status updates, recordings of past meetings, and opportunities to participate
Introduction to Reviews
Learn more about Reviews, their purpose and process for conducting and opportunities to participate
CCT Review Meeting Schedule
Find the schedule to observe CCT Review Team Meetings
CCT Fact Sheet
See the progress of the CCT Review Team towards completing the Review
Contact the Review Team
Provide input by sending an email to the CCT Review Team
CCT Implementation Progress
[Under construction]

Objectives of the CCT Review

Under the Bylaws (Section 4.6(d)), ICANN is committed to ensuring that it will adequately address issues of competition, consumer protection, security, stability and resiliency, malicious abuse issues, sovereignty concerns, and rights protection prior to increasing in the number of new generic top-level domains under an application process initiated after 1 October 2016 (“New gTLD Round”).

The review team for the CCT Review (“CCT Review Team”) examines the extent to which the expansion of gTLDs has promoted competition, consumer trust and consumer choice.  It also assesses the effectiveness of the New gTLD Round’s application and evaluation process, as well as the safeguards put in place to mitigate issues arising from the New gTLD Round.

For each of its recommendations, the CCT Review Team should indicate whether the recommendation, if accepted by the Board, must be implemented before opening subsequent rounds of new generic top-level domain applications periods.

The CCT Review Team shall also assess the extent to which prior CCT Review recommendations have been implemented and the extent to which implementation of such recommendations has resulted in the intended effect.

Review Progress and Milestones

The graphic below illustrates phases and status of each review - a  indicates that all activities within a given phase have been completed.  The chart that follows the graphic provides further details of key activities and milestones within each phase – you can view these details by clicking on each of the phases in the graphic.  The table also contains links to relevant documents.

Competition, Consumer Trust and Consumer Choice
PhaseActivityDescriptionStart DateDocuments
Assemble Review TeamCall for Volunteers ExtensionExtension of call for volunteers to submit application2 Nov 2015
ApplicationsApplications Received for CCT16 Nov 2015
Appointment of review team membersAppointment of review team members based on AoC requirements23 Dec 2015
Call for VolunteersCall for Volunteers1 Oct 2015
Plan ReviewVariousReview team activities and detailed information available on the community wiki24 Dec 2015
Terms of ReferenceDocument outlining the scope of work adopted by the review team23 Mar 2016
Conduct ReviewCCT Draft ReportDraft report published for public comment7 Mar 2017
CCT Issues New Sections to Draft Report RecommendationsCall for input on new sections to the draft report. 27 Nov 2017
CCT Final ReportCompetition, Consumer Trust, and Consumer Choice Review Final Report8 Sep 2018
CCT Final Report Executive SummaryExecutive summary of the CCT Final Report8 Sep 2018
Board ActionBoard receipt of the Final ReportBoard receipt of the Final Report5 Oct 2018
Public comment on Final ReportFinal Report & Recommendations posted for public comment8 Oct 2018
Extension of Public CommentAnnouncement of extension of public comment on CCT Final Report29 Nov 2018
Board Action on RecommendationsBoard resolution taking action on 35 recommendations1 Mar 2019
Board Action on RecommendationsBoard resolution approving eleven (11) recommendations within October 2020 Scorecard22 Oct 2020
Plan ImplementationPlan for Implementation and Next StepsAccepted Recommendations - Plan for Implementation and Next Steps11 Sep 2019
Board Action on ImplementationBoard resolution on implementation of six accepted recommendations26 Jan 2020

Implementation of CCT Recommendations 

The table below includes documents relating to the implementation of recommendations from the Competition, Consumer Trust and Consumer Choice Review (CCT). See the CCT wiki for more information on the implementation of CCT recommendations.

Rec #



Implementation Document(s)



Information coming soon.


Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."