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1999 Correspondence

Correspondence Affiliation Date Issue
Comment from Internet Architecture Board to Internet Architecture Board 27 September 1999 Unique DNS Root
Letter from John Patrick to Esther Dyson IBM Corporation 23 September 1999
Letter from Mike Roberts to Howard Berman U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary 4 August 1999
Letter from Howard Berman to Mike Roberts U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary 29 July 1999
Testimony of Michael M. Roberts to Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary 28 July 1999
Testimony of Esther Dyson to Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce 22 July 1999
Letter from Esther Dyson to Becky Burr U.S. Department of Commerce 19 July 1999
Letter from Mike Roberts to Jim Rutt VeriSign 9 July 1999 gTLD Constituency Group representation on the DNSO Names Council
Letter from Esther Dyson to Tom Bliley U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce 8 July 1999
Response of ICANN to Tom Bliley U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce 8 July 1999
Letter from Jim Rutt to ICANN VeriSign 1 July 1999 gTLD Constituency Group representation on the DNSO Names Council
Letter from Tom Bliley to ICANN U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce 22 June 1999
Letter from Esther Dyson to Ralph Nader Ralph Nader and James Love 15 June 1999
Letter from Becky Burr to Esther Dyson U.S. Department of Commerce 15 June 1999
Letter from Ralph Nader to Esther Dyson Ralph Nader and James Love 11 June 1999
Letter from Don Telage to ICANN VeriSign 11 June 1999 gTLD Constituency Group representation on the DNSO Names Council
Letter from Mike Roberts to Don Telage VeriSign 11 June 1999 gTLD Constituency Group representation on the DNSO Names Council
Email from Scott Bradner to Esther Dyson ISOC, IETF, and IAB 25 February 1999 Assignment of Protocol Parameters Developed or Maintained by the IETF
Reply of Esther Dyson to Scott Bradner ISOC, IETF, and IAB 25 February 1999 Assignment of Protocol Parameters Developed or Maintained by the IETF

 

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."