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To be a trusted Contractual Compliance service provider.


To preserve the security, stability and resiliency of the Domain Name System and to promote consumer trust.


  • Prevention through collaboration.
  • Transparency through communication.
  • Enforcement.

Contractual Compliance Staff

Yan Agranonik | Contractual Compliance Risk & Audit Senior Manager

Nick Axelrod-McLeod | Contractual Compliance Specialist

Leticia Castillo | Director, Contractual Compliance

Genie Chou | Contractual Compliance Sr. Specialist

Jonathan Denison | Director, Contractual Compliance

Jamie Hedlund | SVP, Contractual Compliance & Consumer Safeguards

Pamela Howard, MBA, CPA | Contractual Compliance Performance Measurement & Reporting Sr. Manager

Kevin Jaijairam | Contractual Compliance Analyst

May Kim | Contractual Compliance Sr. Specialist

Jinzaemon Kimoto | Contractual Compliance Sr. Specialist

Mehdi Kurdmisto | Contractual Compliance Analyst

Charmaine Lim | Contractual Compliance Analyst

Roger Lim | Director, Contractual Compliance

Selim Manzak | Contractual Compliance Sr. Specialist

Joseph Restuccia | Contractual Compliance Risk & Audit Sr. Specialist

Amanda Rose | Contractual Compliance Lead

Zuhra Salijanova | Sr. Manager, Contractual Compliance

Arya Shirani | Contractual Compliance Analyst

Bryan Tan | Contractual Compliance Analyst

Yien Chyn Tan | Contractual Compliance Specialist

Holida Yanik | Contractual Compliance Sr. Specialist

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."