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2000 Correspondence

Correspondence Affiliation Date Issue
Letter from Robert Verrue to Mike Roberts European Commission 1 December 2000 New Top-Level Domains
Letter from Karen Rose to Michael Roberts U.S. Department of Commerce 28 September 2000
Letter from Jere Glover to Mike Roberts U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy 16 August 2000 ICANN Process
Letter from Michael M. Roberts to Erkki Liikanen European Commission 10 August 2000 .eu Top-Level Domain
Letter from Erkki Liikanen to Mike Roberts European Commission 6 July 2000 .eu Top-Level Domain
Letter from Louis Touton to Donald Telage U.S. COPA Commisssion 8 June 2000
Letter from Mike Roberts to Jere Glover U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy 15 May 2000 ICANN Process
Letter from Louis Touton to Roger Cochetti VeriSign 7 January 2000 Transfers of registrar sponsorship of registrations

 

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."