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Announcements

Fifth Africa DNS Forum to Take Place in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

The fifth Africa Domain Name System (DNS) Forum is being organized by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), in partnership with the Internet Society (ISOC) and the Africa Top Level Domains Organization (AFTLD). The...

Extended Deadline: Request for Proposal for the RSSAC Organizational Review

The deadline has been extended for the Request for Proposal for the Independent Review of the Root Server System Advisory Committee (RSSAC). The new deadline is 24 July 2017 at 12:00 PDT. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers...

Request for Proposal: SSAC Organizational Review

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is seeking a provider to conduct an independent assessment of the Security and Stability Advisory Committee (SSAC). The provider should have technical knowledge or experience with...

Security Framework Drafting Team to Present Draft Framework for Registry Operators to Respond to Security Threats

LOS ANGELES – 6 July 2017 – The Security Framework Drafting Team (SFDT) consisting of representatives from registries, registrars, the Public Safety Working Group (PSWG), and the ICANN organization today announced it will present the draft...

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Recapping GNSO Activities at ICANN59 and Looking Ahead to ICANN60

The leadership of the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) Council speaks to ICANN Policy Analyst Ariel Liang, detailing the issues that have framed ICANN59 discussions, as well as the...

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Update on New gTLD Subsequent Procedures

ICANN Policy Analyst Ariel Liang speaks with Co-Chair Jeff Neuman of the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) Policy Development Process Working Group on the New Generic Top-Level Domain...

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Update on New gTLD Subsequent Procedures

ICANN Policy Analyst Ariel Liang speaks with Co-Chair Jeff Neuman of the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) Policy Development Process Working Group on the New Generic Top-Level Domain...

Artworks 000231005603 x2nubp t500x500

Recapping GNSO Activities at ICANN59 and Looking Ahead to ICANN60

The leadership of the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) Council speaks to ICANN Policy Analyst Ariel Liang, detailing the issues that have framed ICANN59 discussions, as well as the...

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."