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Update to BCG Study - Country Clusters Analysis Now Available

Reducing e-friction – or a country’s obstacles to full participation in the global digital economy – can deliver benefits to national economies and business, particularly in developing markets. BCG findings show a potential 2.5% increase in GDP...

WEBINAR: Cross Community Working Group (CWG) On IANA Naming Related Functions: Briefing on 2nd Draft Proposal for Public Comment

NTIA Stewardship Transition

ICG Publishes Update to Process Timeline

The IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group (ICG) today announced that it has published an update to the group's Process Timeline: [PDF, 53 KB] For more...

ICANN Grants Data Retention Waiver to NordNet SA

DATA RETENTION WAIVER NordNet SA NordNet SA ("Registrar") submitted to ICANN a Registrar Data Retention Waiver Request ("Waiver Request") pursuant to Section 3 of the Data Retention Specification of the 2013 RAA, which provides that if a...




An Interview with Arun Sukumar, CCWG on ICANN Accountability

Arun Sukumar, a participant on the Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability, describes the experience of being an ICANN newcomer and why he wanted to be a part of a process...

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Countdown to ICANN53: Albert Daniels, Stakeholder Engagement Manager Caribbean, ICANN

Countdown to ICANN53 in Buenos Aires, with 9 weeks to go! Cuenta regresiva para ICANN53 en Buenos Aires: ¡solo restan 9 semanas! Compte à rebours pour ICANN53 à Buenos Aires: il ne reste que 9...

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CWG Stewardship Co-Chairs Interviewed in Istanbul

Lise Fuhr and Jonathan Robinson, Co-Chairs of the Cross Community Working Group to Develop an IANA Stewardship Transition Proposal on Naming Related Functions describe the group¹s progress during...


Blog Posts

Working Together to Overcome E-Friction

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Accepting the ICANN Challenge

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Beyond the Contract: Partnering to Strengthen Business and Consumer Protections


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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."