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Announcements

IANA Functions Customer Survey Results Available

LOS ANGELES – 18 January 2018 – The Internet Corporation for Assigned Name and Numbers (ICANN) published the results of an annual survey that measures the perception of satisfaction among Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions...

Maximal Starting Repertoire version 3 (MSR-3) for Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ-LGR)

Open Date: 17 January 2018 Close Date: 26 February 2018 Originating Organization: Global Domains Division Categories/Tags: Top-Level Domains Brief Overview: ICANN is releasing for public comment...

Implementation of the Consensus Policy for Protection of Certain Specific IGO and INGO Identifiers for All gTLDs

LOS ANGELES – 16 January 2018 – The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) today announced that all ICANN generic top-level domain (gTLD) contracted parties must implement the new Consensus Policy concerning the protection of...

Potential Data Exposure in ICANN RFP System Resolved

LOS ANGELES – 12 January 2018 – The Internet Corporation for Names and Numbers (ICANN) today disclosed a potential data exposure with JAGGAER (formerly SciQuest), the software as a service (SaaS) tool used for sourcing suppliers via competitive...

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Multimedia

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Pierre Dandjinou on ICANN in Africa

ICANN VP of Global Stakeholder Engagement in Africa, Pierre Dandjinou, talks about ICANN’s outreach efforts in Africa, and why participation in ICANN is important for further development in the...

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Baher Esmat on ICANN in the Middle East

ICANN VP of Global Stakeholder Engagement in the Middle East, Baher Esmat discusses outreach efforts in the Middle East, and why participation in ICANN is important for further development in the...

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Steve Crocker Tribute Video

A tribute to Steve Crocker, former ICANN Board Chair, during ICANN60 in Abu Dhabi.

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Interview With Jonathan Zuck and Drew Bagley

Learn about the progress and next steps of the Competition, Consumer Trust, and Consumer Choice Review from CCT Chair Jonathan Zuck and CCT Independent Expert Drew Bagley. In this interview,...

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Blog Posts

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What’s New with ICANN Reviews

Data Protection and Privacy Update – Plans for the New Year

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."