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Proposed ICANN Bylaws Amendments—GNSO Policy & Implementation Recommendations

Forum Announcement: Comment Period Opens on Date: 31 July 2015 Categories/Tags: Policy Processes Purpose (Brief): During its meeting on 24 June 2015, the GNSO Council unanimously adopted...

US Circuit Court Upholds ICANN's Defense of the New gTLD Program

Los Angeles, California... The United States' Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals has affirmed the dismissal of antitrust and other claims against ICANN made by a company called, related to ICANN's new generic Top Level Domain (gTLD)...

ICG Seeking Public Input on Key Internet Governance Proposal

The IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group (ICG) today released for public comment the proposal [IANA Stewardship Transition Proposal [PDF, 2.2 MB]] for the transition of the stewardship of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)...

Removal of Searchable Whois Service from .SHARP Registry Agreement

Forum Announcement: Comment Period Opens on Date: 30 July 2015 Categories/Tags: Contracted Party Agreements Second-Level Domains Security/Stability Top-Level Domains ...




CCWG-Accountability Co-Chair Mathieu Weill talks about Day 1 at CCWGParis

Cross Community Work Group (CCWG)-Accountability Co-Chair Mathieu Weill talks about Day 1 at the CCWG's Paris Meeting


Jonathan Robinson Reviews GNSO Council Achievements at ICANN53

Jonathan Robinson explains the achievements of the GNSO Council in Buenos Aires. The Council’s public meeting during ICANN53 saw five motions passed, among which was the approval of the Final...

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Transition Program Facilitation Meeting - 9 July 2015

Coordination call for the IANA Stewardship Transition and Enhancing ICANN Accountability Processes.

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CCWG-Accountability Co-Chair Mathieu Weill at ICANN53

Mathieu Weill, Co-Chair of the CCWG-Accountability reports on the chairs' briefings to various stakeholder groups today at ICANN53 in Buenos Aires.


Blog Posts

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.AFRICA IRP Declaration – Clearing Up Some Facts

Collaborating towards a Truly Multilingual Internet


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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."