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  • IANA Stewardship Transition Implementation Planning Update (Volume 4)

    ICANNis compiling updates on the progress of theIANAStewardship Transition and EnhancingICANNAccountability implementation planning efforts. This information is positioned to help inform interested stakeholders on the recent developments in the processes, upcoming key...
  • ICANN57 Hyderabad: What You Need to Know

    As ICANN57 draws closer, I wantto provide some clarity on how this meeting will be different from past meetings, and what you should expect. In 2014, the ICANN Board approved the community’s New Meeting Strategy & Implementation Plan, which outlined the structure for...
  • DNSSEC: Rolling the Root Zone Key Signing Key

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    ICANN today posted plans to update or "roll" the Root Zone Key Signing Key (KSK), marking another significant step in our ongoing efforts aimed at improving the security of the Domain Name System (DNS). The KSK rollover plans were developed by the Root Zone...
  • Hundreds Gather at IGF-USA to Tackle Pressing Internet Issues

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    Photo caption: Attendees await the start of a panel at IGF-USA, held at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C. Photo Credit: Glenn McKnight As in recent years, ICANN issues featured prominently in the 2016 edition of the Internet Governance...
  • Tracking gTLD Marketplace Health

    Today, ICANN published the gTLD Marketplace Health Index (Beta), which presents statistics and trends related to generic top-level domains (gTLDs). ICANN intends to publish these statistics biannually to track progress against its goal of supporting the evolution of the...
  • ICANN56 Technical Report Now Available!

    We're pleased to present the ICANN56 Technical Report, which summarizes our findings from ICANN's first Policy Forum. Meeting technical reports are part of ICANN's commitment to transparency. These metrics also help us improve meetings, as we learn what attendees want,...
  • Presenting Our Mitigation Plan for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Earlier this year, ICANN decided to move ICANN56 from Panama City, Panama, to Helsinki, Finland, and ICANN57 from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to Hyderabad, India. In response, ICANNs Global Stakeholder Engagement team drafted a mitigation plan to alleviate the negative...
  • Blog Update: BGC's Comments on Recent Reconsideration Request

    Earlier this week ICANN's Board Governance Committee (BGC) recommended that the ICANN Board deny a Reconsideration Request from dotgay LLC, in which it objected to emails to authors of letters of support having been sent by an administrator at the Community Priority...
  • Inviting You to ICANN57 in Hyderabad!

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    ICANN57 will be held in Hyderabad, India, from 3–9 November 2016. Together with Samiran Gupta, Head of India, and the Asia Pacific Hub team, I welcome you to Hyderabad! We are very excited about this second ICANN Public Meeting to be hosted in India. The first, ICANN31,...
  • What Do You Think of the First Policy Forum?

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    Tanzanica King and Josh Baulch from ICANN's Meeting Team discussing the new meeting strategy. ICANN56 in Helsinki is a meeting of firsts for ICANN and the community. It is the first ICANN Public Meeting for the new President and CEO, Göran Marby. And it is the first...
  • Five Things You Didn’t Know About Finland

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    1.Four Finnish students developed the world’s first Internet browser with a graphical user interface.In 1991–1992, Kim Nyberg, Teemu Rantanen, Kati Suominen and Kari Sydänmaanlakka created Erwise, as a combined master’s project. Erwise introduced capabilities that we now...
  • Help Make the Fellowship Program Reflect Your Community Needs

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    Since 2007, the ICANN Fellowship Program has been bringing new faces, new voices and fresh ideas into the ICANN Community to help support the regional and global work of policy building and maintaining secure operation of the Domain Name System. At first the program...
  • Metadata Collection And Controversy

    In What Are Metadata?, I explained that metadata are data that describe or provide information about other data such as social media discussions, email exchanges or online transactions. Now that we have a common appreciation for what metadata are, let's consider how...
  • NTIA Report Update

    In a report issued earlier this month, the U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) found that the “proposal developed by the global Internet multistakeholder community meets the criteria NTIA outlined in March 2014 when it stated its intent...
  • 10 Things to Do in Helsinki

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    With a backdrop of more than 300 islands, Helsinki’s setting on the Baltic Sea is unique. While you’re at ICANN56, make time to explore the sights of Helsinki. Appreciate its natural beauty while you take in its architectural, historical and cultural offerings. 1.Visit...
  • The Chairman’s Blog: The ICANN Ombudsman

    The role of the ICANN Ombudsman is a critical part of our accountability. It has been the subject of significant discussion throughout the community’s Enhancing ICANN Accountability process, and is currently being examined in Work Stream 2 (WS2) of the...
  • Launching Work Stream 2 in Helsinki

    It has been a momentous month for the ICANN community. On behalf of the Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability (CCWG-Accountability), we welcome the U.S. Government report that our recommendations meet their requirements. We are actively engaged...
  • Security Best Practices: DNSSEC Validation

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    I would like to share some key points about the significance of the security technology Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) and some important updates that will be implemented in the coming year. These points are extracted from my recent presentation at the...
  • IANA Stewardship Transition Implementation Planning Update (Volume 3)

    ICANNis compiling updates on the progress of theIANAStewardship Transition and EnhancingICANNAccountability implementation planning efforts. This information is positioned to help inform interested stakeholders on the recent developments in the processes, upcoming key...
  • Nurturing Future Leaders in the Asia Pacific Internet Community

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    More than half of the world’s young people live in the Asia Pacific (APAC) region (source). In fact, the next billion Internet users will come from this region. To the emerging generation, the Internet is synonymous with social media and the mobile devices they have used...
  • Three Years into ICANN's Middle East Strategy

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    Over three years ago, ICANN stakeholders in the Middle East came together to develop a regional engagement strategy for 2013–2016. The strategy affirmed the need to foster: Two-way engagement between ICANN and the Internet community Strong and competitive domain name...
  • Changes to ICANN’s Global Leadership Team

    Since joining ICANN late May, I’ve been thinking about ICANN’s Global Leadership Team and what functions should be present to help guide the organization. As a result, I’ve made a few small changes to this team to reflect the importance of key functions and make sure we’...
  • Another Milestone Towards the IANA Stewardship Transition

    On March 14, 2014, 818 days ago, the U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) asked ICANN to convene the global Internet community to develop proposals to transition the stewardship of the IANA functions to the multistakeholder community. It...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."