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  • ICANN to Participate in Upcoming Internet Governance Forum in Mexico

    Next week, members of the ICANN community, Board and organization will participate in the 2016 Internet Governance Forum (IGF 2016). Board Chair Steve Crocker and President and CEO Göran Marby will be among the ICANN participants. The event will take place just outside...
  • Presidents Corner: Increased Reporting to the Community

    Ahead of each Board workshop, the ICANN Organization Executive Team compiles a brief report for the Board that summarizes each department’s highlights, milestones and provides an overview of recent activity. In our continued commitment to increased transparency, we will...
  • ICANN at 3rd World Internet Conference

    Wrapping up our work in Hyderabad, I am heading to Wuzhen this week, together with two of our APAC Board members, Asha Hemrajani and Akinori Maemura, to attend the 3rd World Internet Conference held in my home country, China from 16 – 18 November. We are not strangers to...
  • Countdown to ICANN58: From Hyderabad, India, to Copenhagen, Denmark

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    We are near the end of our 57th Public Meeting here in Hyderabad, and are already hard at work on our next meeting, scheduled to take place in Copenhagen from 11–16 March 2017. ICANN57 was our first post-transition meeting, with the increased accountability measures and...
  • A Digital Revolution in India

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    India has a population of 1.3 billion people , including 400 million Internet users. This means that currently over 70% of citizens are not using the Internet. Contributing factors are a lack of infrastructure and a need to improve Internet literacy. To address these...
  • ICANN Kicks Off Open Data Initiative Pilot

    ICANN has begun a pilot project to introduce an Open Data Initiative for ICANN-generated data. Various ICANN activities produce data related to ICANN’s mission of coordinating the Internet’s system of unique identifiers, including domain name system operations, domain...
  • Co-Chairs Statement from CCWG-Accountability Meeting in Hyderabad

    On 2 November 2016, the Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability (CCWG-Accountability) held a face-to-face meeting in Hyderabad, India, to further its discussions on Work Stream 2. 60 members and participants attended in-person, and many others...
  • Top 10 Things to Do in Hyderabad

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    Hyderabad is popular with visitors due to its rich architectural, historical, cultural and culinary offerings. During your week at ICANN57, be sure to find time for some sightseeing so you can get to know the City of Pearls. Here are 10 experiences you don’t want to miss....
  • Three Things to Understand About India

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    Namaste (“hello” in Hindi)! When I heard ICANN57 would be in India, the country of my birth, I was ecstatic. I’ve spent half my life in India and the other half in the U.S., so my perspective on the Indian way of life has morphed over time. Since moving to the States, I...
  • Welcome to ICANN57

    Jia-Rong Low, VP and Managing Director of the ICANN Asia Pacific Hub, extends a warm welcome to everyone – whether you are a newcomer or have participated in meetings before ICANN57. He talks about the historic significance of ICANN57 Hyderabad and highlights what you...
  • Research Revealed on Authoritative Servers at the Second Level

    ICANN is interested in the infrastructure supporting the identifiers that we help coordinate, and the Domaine Name System (DNS) has a wide variety of infrastructure. There has already been a fair amount of research about the root servers and the Top-Level Domains (TLD)...
  • KSK Rollover Operations Begin

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    Today, ICANN created a new root zone key signing key (KSK). This new cryptographic public/private key pair was made during the quarterly Root KSK Ceremony at our secure key management facility in Culpeper, Virginia. With this key generation, the initial operational phase...
  • ICANN57: A Real-Life Audio-Video Disaster Recovery Story

    Very few people realize what it actually takes to make an ICANN meeting run smoothly from the Network Operations Center backroom, where the InfoTech team orchestrates its magic with high energy. You’ve probably experienced the excellent remote capabilities to encourage...
  • The Next Version of ICANN’s KPI Dashboard is Now Live

    I am pleased to say we have now updated our Key Performance Indicator (KPI) Dashboard to "version two." In close partnership with the community, we've further evolved and updated some of the KPIs in the Dashboard. One example of this is the recently announced...
  • Universal Acceptance Steering Group: A Year of Progress

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    Over the past year, the Universal Acceptance Steering Group (UASG), a community-based team of industry leaders supported by ICANN, has led the effort to prepare the online community for the next billion Internet users through a process known as Universal Acceptance (UA)....
  • ICANN Meeting Survival Guide

    Amrita Choudhury (left) and other ICANN meeting participants at ICANN55 in Marrakech. As a three-time ICANN Fellow myself, the upcoming ICANN57 in Hyderabad, India will be the fourth ICANN Public Meeting that I’ve attended in person. If ICANN57 is your first...
  • ICANN57 Hyderabad – Global Domains Division Session Highlights

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    ICANN57 kicks off in just two weeks. The Global Domains Division (GDD) has a packed schedule of more than 30 sessions to help keep you informed of the latest developments in our work. Between general interest lectures and technical workshop sessions, there's at least one...
  • ICANN57 in Hyderabad (3-9 November) – Preparatory Visit

    “We want to ensure that anyone who wants to attend ICANN57 will be able to attend.” That is the message we received during our preparatory visit to Delhi a few weeks ago, which focused on working with the local host to address any issues with the ongoing ICANN57 meeting...
  • Root Zone Maintainer Service Agreement Is Now Effective

    Last month, I mentioned in my implementation update that as the final step to removingthe U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration’s (NTIA) role,NTIAand Verisign needed to amend the cooperative agreement between them. As of today, the cooperative...
  • Community Participation in Public Comment for FY18 Planning

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    Each year, after ICANN’s Board adopts the Operating Plan and Budget, we review the past year’s development process to identify strengths and areas for improvement. Over the last few years, we have managed to present our draft plans earlier and earlier, while also...
  • Universal Acceptance Compliance at ICANN

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    Universal Acceptance ensures that all domain names and email addresses can be used by all Internet-enabled applications, devices and systems. It is essential for the continued expansion of the domain name system and provides a gateway to the next billion Internet users....
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."