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  • ICANN57 Hyderabad: What You Need to Know (Part 2)

    Further to my blog on 25 July 2016, I would like to share details on visa applications to assist all who are attending ICANN57 Annual General Meeting in Hyderabad with your travel planning. We have worked extensively with the India government to ensure a clear and smooth...
  • Implementation Planning, Execution, and NTIA’s Response

    In order to fulfill the tasks assigned by NTIA and the community-developed proposals for the IANA stewardship transition, ICANN and the multistakeholder community have dedicated significant time and resources over the past eight months developing plans for implementation....
  • The Changing Face of the LACIGF

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    The Latin American and Caribbean regional preparatory meeting for the Internet Governance Forum (LACIGF) was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, from 26 to 29 July. It was the ninth edition of a process that started in 2008 in Montevideo, Uruguay. Eight years later, the process...
  • ICANN Ombudsman Herb Waye

    I took office last week and on my first day as ICANN Ombudsman spent the day working with ICANN LA staff. I would like to sent a big shout out to the ICANN LA staff for all their assistance; technical, administrative, and operational. You got me up and running with social...
  • Call for Volunteers for SSR2 Review Team

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    ICANN is seeking a geographically diverse team of security experts to look at operational stability and resiliency matters relating to the coordination of the Internet's system of unique identifiers. If this sounds like you, less than two weeks remain for you to volunteer...
  • Coffee Beans and the Ethiopic Script

    Last month, we visited Addis Ababa to hold a workshop for the Ethiopic Script Generation Panel. Upon arriving, while being introduced to the rich history and culture of Ethiopia, we were told that coffee beans originated from Kaffa, which was a medieval kingdom in ancient...
  • IANA Stewardship Transition Implementation Planning Update (Volume 4)

    ICANNis compiling updates on the progress of theIANAStewardship Transition and EnhancingICANNAccountability implementation planning efforts. This information is positioned to help inform interested stakeholders on the recent developments in the processes, upcoming key...
  • ICANN57 Hyderabad: What You Need to Know

    As ICANN57 draws closer, I wantto provide some clarity on how this meeting will be different from past meetings, and what you should expect. In 2014, the ICANN Board approved the community’s New Meeting Strategy & Implementation Plan, which outlined the structure for...
  • DNSSEC: Rolling the Root Zone Key Signing Key

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    ICANN today posted plans to update or "roll" the Root Zone Key Signing Key (KSK), marking another significant step in our ongoing efforts aimed at improving the security of the Domain Name System (DNS). The KSK rollover plans were developed by the Root Zone...
  • Hundreds Gather at IGF-USA to Tackle Pressing Internet Issues

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    Photo caption: Attendees await the start of a panel at IGF-USA, held at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C. Photo Credit: Glenn McKnight As in recent years, ICANN issues featured prominently in the 2016 edition of the Internet Governance...
  • Tracking gTLD Marketplace Health

    Today, ICANN published the gTLD Marketplace Health Index (Beta), which presents statistics and trends related to generic top-level domains (gTLDs). ICANN intends to publish these statistics biannually to track progress against its goal of supporting the evolution of the...
  • ICANN56 Technical Report Now Available!

    We're pleased to present the ICANN56 Technical Report, which summarizes our findings from ICANN's first Policy Forum. Meeting technical reports are part of ICANN's commitment to transparency. These metrics also help us improve meetings, as we learn what attendees want,...
  • Presenting Our Mitigation Plan for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Earlier this year, ICANN decided to move ICANN56 from Panama City, Panama, to Helsinki, Finland, and ICANN57 from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to Hyderabad, India. In response, ICANNs Global Stakeholder Engagement team drafted a mitigation plan to alleviate the negative...
  • Blog Update: BGC's Comments on Recent Reconsideration Request

    Earlier this week ICANN's Board Governance Committee (BGC) recommended that the ICANN Board deny a Reconsideration Request from dotgay LLC, in which it objected to emails to authors of letters of support having been sent by an administrator at the Community Priority...
  • Inviting You to ICANN57 in Hyderabad!

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    ICANN57 will be held in Hyderabad, India, from 3–9 November 2016. Together with Samiran Gupta, Head of India, and the Asia Pacific Hub team, I welcome you to Hyderabad! We are very excited about this second ICANN Public Meeting to be hosted in India. The first, ICANN31,...
  • What Do You Think of the First Policy Forum?

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    Tanzanica King and Josh Baulch from ICANN's Meeting Team discussing the new meeting strategy. ICANN56 in Helsinki is a meeting of firsts for ICANN and the community. It is the first ICANN Public Meeting for the new President and CEO, Göran Marby. And it is the first...
  • Five Things You Didn’t Know About Finland

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    1.Four Finnish students developed the world’s first Internet browser with a graphical user interface.In 1991–1992, Kim Nyberg, Teemu Rantanen, Kati Suominen and Kari Sydänmaanlakka created Erwise, as a combined master’s project. Erwise introduced capabilities that we now...
  • Help Make the Fellowship Program Reflect Your Community Needs

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    Since 2007, the ICANN Fellowship Program has been bringing new faces, new voices and fresh ideas into the ICANN Community to help support the regional and global work of policy building and maintaining secure operation of the Domain Name System. At first the program...
  • Metadata Collection And Controversy

    In What Are Metadata?, I explained that metadata are data that describe or provide information about other data such as social media discussions, email exchanges or online transactions. Now that we have a common appreciation for what metadata are, let's consider how...
  • NTIA Report Update

    In a report issued earlier this month, the U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) found that the “proposal developed by the global Internet multistakeholder community meets the criteria NTIA outlined in March 2014 when it stated its intent...
  • 10 Things to Do in Helsinki

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    With a backdrop of more than 300 islands, Helsinki’s setting on the Baltic Sea is unique. While you’re at ICANN56, make time to explore the sights of Helsinki. Appreciate its natural beauty while you take in its architectural, historical and cultural offerings. 1.Visit...
  • The Chairman’s Blog: The ICANN Ombudsman

    The role of the ICANN Ombudsman is a critical part of our accountability. It has been the subject of significant discussion throughout the community’s Enhancing ICANN Accountability process, and is currently being examined in Work Stream 2 (WS2) of the...
  • Launching Work Stream 2 in Helsinki

    It has been a momentous month for the ICANN community. On behalf of the Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability (CCWG-Accountability), we welcome the U.S. Government report that our recommendations meet their requirements. We are actively engaged...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."