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  • ICANN59 Ombuds Harassment Complaint

    I'm writing this blog because I received a complaint that has since been resolved with an apology. The complaint bothered me because it involved historic events that took place before most of us were born. I will not go into details, but it did involve: a) behavior that...
  • Thank You, Africa, for a Successful ICANN59

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    It has been over a month since ICANN59, and yet it already seems like such a long time ago! I'd like to take this opportunity to share a few takeaways from the meeting, which was the third hosted in South Africa, the eleventh on the African continent, and the second...
  • Empowered Community – ICANN Budget and Operating Plans in Effect

    On 17 July 2017, the ICANN Empowered Community confirmed that it was not rejecting any of the following documents previously approved by the ICANN Board on 24 June 2017: ICANN’s FY2018 Budget and Operating Plan IANA’s Budget for FY2018 ICANN’s Five-Year Operating Plan The...
  • Introducing ICANN’s Chief Data Protection Officer (CDPO)

    Data protection and privacy laws and regulations are constantly evolving. One of the ICANN organization’s top priorities continues to be data protection and privacy compliance and maintaining the security of personal data we collect in the course of our operations. As...
  • The Fellowship Spirit

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    On 25 June 2017, ICANN59 Fellowship Alumni gathered in Johannesburg, South Africa, to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the program. Finale of a Four-Part Blog Series (Read Part One, Part Two, and Part Three) Laughter, song, and conversation filled the air on a Sunday...
  • Nominations for ARIN Elections Now Open

    As of 17 July 2017, American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) Trustees and representatives from ARIN's General Members in Good Standing are invited to nominate candidates for seats on the Board of Trustees and Advisory Council to serve three-year terms beginning 1...
  • Personal Data “Use” Matrix Now Available for Public Review

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    This is our third in a series of blogs (read part one and part two) on the progress we have made related to data privacy and protection regulations, notably on the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which will take full effect on 25 May 2018. In...
  • Meet the NextGen from ICANN59

    The NextGen experience at ICANN59 will be a lasting memory for all who were involved. After the meeting was over, the NextGen participants took it upon themselves to create a report highlighting their experiences. The meeting gave them a deeper idea of what ICANN is all...
  • Evolving Data Privacy and Protection Regulations - UPDATE

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    We first shared information on the ICANN organization's activities relating to the data privacy and protection regulations prior to ICANN59 in a blog post titled "Dialogues on the Evolving Data Privacy and Protection Regulations." We'd like to take this opportunity to...
  • A “Key” Milestone in Protecting the DNS

    A significant milestone has been reached in ICANN’s ongoing effort to change the cryptographic key that helps protect the Domain Name System (DNS). On 11 July 2017, the new DNSSEC Key Signing Key (KSK-2017) appeared in the DNS, marking the first time a new key has been...
  • ICANN seeds of engagement sprout in Barbados

    The inaugural Barbados IGF came to a successful conclusion on 23rd June 2017 with substantial coordinating, technical and facilitating input from ICANN fellows Ashell Forde, Jason Hynds, and Bartlett Morgan. The hosting of the IGF in Bridgetown Barbados marked a...
  • Thick WHOIS Transition Update

    The transition from Thin to Thick WHOIS is well underway and I want to provide you with an update on the progress and recent developments. First, I want to acknowledge the efforts of the Thick WHOIS Implementation Review Team (IRT), registries, and registrars who are...
  • Co-Chairs Statement from CCWG-Accountability Meeting in Johannesburg

    On 25 June 2017, the Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability (CCWG-Accountability) held a face-to-face meeting before the start of ICANN59 in Johannesburg. 93 members and participants attended in-person and remotely using the virtual meeting room...
  • ICANN60 Preview

    We’re concluding a successful meeting in Johannesburg. I want to thank everyone who came to engage in four days of intensive policy discussions at ICANN59. The meeting showcased the dedication of ICANN’s Supporting Organizations and Advisory Committees – and the value of...
  • ICANN's Open Data Initiative Early Pilot Platforms Now Available

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    'Open data is publicly available data that can be universally and readily accessed, used, and redistributed free of charge. It is structured for usability and computability.' -'The Global Impact of Open Data,'by Andrew Young and Stefaan Verhulst Today, ICANN is pleased to...
  • The Dark Web: The Land of Hidden Services

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    According to Internet Live Stats, the World Wide Web passed the one billion website benchmark in 2014 and is still hovering around that figure. The publishers of these billion websites compete for search engine relevance and the attention of nearly 3.6 billion Internet...
  • Our International Office Strategy

    When I first joined ICANN, many of you had asked me about how we manage our offices around the world. We've now formalized this in our international office strategy so that we operate more consistently and effectively together, serving you, the global community. Offices...
  • The Fellowship Spirit

    Part Three of a Four-Part Blog Series (Read Part One and Part Two) ICANN59 is upon us and with it, the completion of the ICANN Fellowship Program 10 Year Survey that we conducted in March 2017. Survey results will be posted shortly. We canvased over 600 individuals who...
  • President’s Corner: Greetings from Johannesburg

    Welcome to the second Policy Forum – whether you are here in Johannesburg or following along from home. I am consistently reminded as I meet with ICANN stakeholders around the world, on behalf of the ICANN organization, that the Internet is no one country's national...
  • Top 12 Things You Didn’t Know About South Africa

    1. Only in South Africa will you find a street that has been home to two Nobel Peace Prize laureates. Both Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu lived on Vilakazi Street in the Orlando West township in Soweto. Tutu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."