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  • Evolving Data Privacy and Protection Regulations - UPDATE

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    We first shared information on the ICANN organization's activities relating to the data privacy and protection regulations prior to ICANN59 in a blog post titled "Dialogues on the Evolving Data Privacy and Protection Regulations." We'd like to take this opportunity to...
  • A “Key” Milestone in Protecting the DNS

    A significant milestone has been reached in ICANN’s ongoing effort to change the cryptographic key that helps protect the Domain Name System (DNS). On 11 July 2017, the new DNSSEC Key Signing Key (KSK-2017) appeared in the DNS, marking the first time a new key has been...
  • ICANN seeds of engagement sprout in Barbados

    The inaugural Barbados IGF came to a successful conclusion on 23rd June 2017 with substantial coordinating, technical and facilitating input from ICANN fellows Ashell Forde, Jason Hynds, and Bartlett Morgan. The hosting of the IGF in Bridgetown Barbados marked a...
  • Thick WHOIS Transition Update

    The transition from Thin to Thick WHOIS is well underway and I want to provide you with an update on the progress and recent developments. First, I want to acknowledge the efforts of the Thick WHOIS Implementation Review Team (IRT), registries, and registrars who are...
  • Co-Chairs Statement from CCWG-Accountability Meeting in Johannesburg

    On 25 June 2017, the Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability (CCWG-Accountability) held a face-to-face meeting before the start of ICANN59 in Johannesburg. 93 members and participants attended in-person and remotely using the virtual meeting room...
  • ICANN60 Preview

    We’re concluding a successful meeting in Johannesburg. I want to thank everyone who came to engage in four days of intensive policy discussions at ICANN59. The meeting showcased the dedication of ICANN’s Supporting Organizations and Advisory Committees – and the value of...
  • ICANN's Open Data Initiative Early Pilot Platforms Now Available

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    'Open data is publicly available data that can be universally and readily accessed, used, and redistributed free of charge. It is structured for usability and computability.' -'The Global Impact of Open Data,'by Andrew Young and Stefaan Verhulst Today, ICANN is pleased to...
  • The Dark Web: The Land of Hidden Services

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    According to Internet Live Stats, the World Wide Web passed the one billion website benchmark in 2014 and is still hovering around that figure. The publishers of these billion websites compete for search engine relevance and the attention of nearly 3.6 billion Internet...
  • Our International Office Strategy

    When I first joined ICANN, many of you had asked me about how we manage our offices around the world. We've now formalized this in our international office strategy so that we operate more consistently and effectively together, serving you, the global community. Offices...
  • The Fellowship Spirit

    Part Three of a Four-Part Blog Series (Read Part One and Part Two) ICANN59 is upon us and with it, the completion of the ICANN Fellowship Program 10 Year Survey that we conducted in March 2017. Survey results will be posted shortly. We canvased over 600 individuals who...
  • President’s Corner: Greetings from Johannesburg

    Welcome to the second Policy Forum – whether you are here in Johannesburg or following along from home. I am consistently reminded as I meet with ICANN stakeholders around the world, on behalf of the ICANN organization, that the Internet is no one country's national...
  • Top 12 Things You Didn’t Know About South Africa

    1. Only in South Africa will you find a street that has been home to two Nobel Peace Prize laureates. Both Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu lived on Vilakazi Street in the Orlando West township in Soweto. Tutu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his...
  • Welcome to the ICANN59 Policy Forum

    David Olive, Senior VP, Policy Development Support and Managing Director of the Istanbul Office, expresses his excitement to be back in South Africa for another ICANN Public Meeting. He welcomes everyone who has come to be a part of the innovative and collaborative policy...
  • Publishing Submissions to the Complaints Office

    I am excited to announce that I have published the first report of the Complaints Office's activities on the our dedicated webpage. This initial report includes submissions received through 12 June 2017, and I will be updating it on a regular basis. It's been two months...
  • Welcome to Africa and to ICANN59!

    Pierre Dandjinou, ICANN’sVP, Global Stakeholder Engagement in Africa, welcomes you toJohannesburg, also called Egoli, the City of Gold. In this video, he stresses the importance ofyour contribution to the ICANN59 Policy Forum, where ICANN’s Supporting Organizations and...
  • Dialogues on the Evolving Data Privacy and Protection Regulations

    Data privacy and data protection regulations are currently undergoing developments that may impact specific areas of ICANN's work. In the past few months, we've had several discussions with the multistakeholder community about this topic. These dialogues took place in a...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."