Universal Acceptance (UA)
Universal Acceptance (UA) ensures that all domain names, including new top-level domains (TLDs), Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs), and email addresses are treated equally and can be used by all Internet-enabled applications, devices, and systems. UA provides the gateway to the next billion Internet users.
Latest UA Announcements, Blogs, and Reports
- Apr. 2022 - Why UA? Understanding the Social and Economic Benefits of Universal Acceptance (UASG)
- Mar. 2022 - UA Insights from ICANN73: Measuring UA Progress and Celebrating New Collaborations (UASG)
- Mar. 2022 - ICANN's 2022 Middle East DNS Forum to Take Place Virtually in May (ICANN)
See all UASG and ICANN announcements and blogs.
The introduction of new generic top-level domains (gTLDs) into the Internet ecosystem enabled the largest expansion of the Domain Name System (DNS) to date. There are now more than 1,200 active gTLDs representing many different scripts and character strings of varying length (e.g., .дети, .london, .engineering). There are also more than 60 IDN country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) representing global communities online in native scripts (e.g., .ไทย, 中国, السعودية).
UA is a fundamental requirement for a truly multilingual and digitally inclusive Internet. UA ensures that all valid domain names, including long new TLDs and email addresses, can be used by all Internet-enabled applications, devices, and systems regardless of script, language, or character length. UA also supports the ability for email mailbox names to use characters in local languages and scripts through Email Address Internationalization (EAI) standards. To excel in the long run, organizations and businesses need to ensure that their systems and services will work with the continuously expanding and evolving domain name space.
UA is a priority for ICANN org and is a strategic goal outlined in the ICANN Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 2021-2025.
Achieving UA ensures everyone has the ability to navigate and communicate on the Internet using the domain name and email address that best aligns with their interests, business, culture, language, and script. Being UA-ready will help bring the next billion people online, many of whom currently face linguistic barriers to the Internet.
When organizations and businesses are UA-ready, they set themselves up for future success and prospective business growth by supporting their customers' chosen identities. UA-ready websites, applications, and services lead to better user experiences and enable greater competition, innovation, and consumer choice.
The annual UA-Readiness Report outlines the status of UA around the world.
Achieving UA is only possible through the joint efforts and cooperation of various stakeholders, including, but not limited, to:
- Technology enablers
- Technology developers
- Email software and service providers
- Email and system administrators
- Top-level domain registries and registrars
- Government policymakers
UA Programs and Resources
The UASG is a volunteer-led initiative focused on UA awareness and remediation. Volunteers are welcome to join in these efforts through the UASG's Working Groups and other initiatives.
Learn more about the technical aspects of UA and EAI through our training programs and resources.
Research the state of UA-readiness through numerous platform and framework evaluations.
For more information, please email UAProgram@icann.org.