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Registries FAQs

Name Reservation, Allocation, and Registration FAQ [PDF, 513 KB] (Published 08 August 2014)

Portal Data Exposure Issue: Questions & Answers [PDF, 147 KB] (Published 20 August 2015)
This document provides answers to questions about the data exposure issue that occurred in the New gTLD Applicant and GDD Portals, which the Registry Stakeholder Group posed to ICANN on the 10 June 2015 at 20:00 UTC Registry Stakeholder Call. It also contains the first set of Questions & Answers about the issue that ICANN published on 2 March 2015, four days after we were made aware of it.

Registry Operator Billing Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) [PDF, 151KB] (Published 29 October 2015)
The Billing FAQ provides answers to commonly asked questions regarding the billing and invoicing processes for Registry Operators.

Submission of Annual Certifications and Internal Reviews FAQ [PDF, 129 KB] (Published 13 December 2016)
This document provides answers to commonly asked questions regarding various annual certifications and internal reviews required pursuant to certain provisions of the Registry Agreement.

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."