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Issues and Challenges Impacting Domain Name Registrants Report Series

The 'Issues and Challenges Impacting Domain Name Registrants'' report series is as part of our broader effort to raise awareness about the issues and challenges registrants face. The Registrant Program encourages everyone to take a look at the reports and share any data you might have regarding issues impacting registrants to inform ongoing conversations and work. We'll continue to work with departments across the organization who engage with registrants to gather and analyze data on an ongoing basis.

We invite all community members and ICANN newcomers to engage with us and actively participate in our ongoing cross-community dialogue about registrant issues and challenges. This invitation is particularly important for those who are passionate about helping registrants. We will continue to work towards helping educate registrants and raising awareness about reducing issues and challenges that registrants are encountering when managing domain names.

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."