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Procedural Order No. 18 4 March 2022
Procedural Order No. 17 22 February 2022
Procedural Order No. 16 4 February 2022

ICANN's Pre-Hearing Brief on the Merits

14 January 2022
Procedural Order No. 15 7 January 2022

Claimant's Pre-Hearing Brief on the Merits

30 November 2021
Procedural Order No. 14 2 November 2021
Procedural Order No. 13 2 November 2021
Procedural Order No. 12 22 October 2021
Procedural Order No. 11 20 August 2021
Procedural Order No. 10 19 April 2021
Procedural Order No. 9 10 March 2021
Procedural Order No. 8 10 March 2021
Procedural Order No. 7 27 February 2021
Procedural Order No. 6 12 February 2021

Claimant's Response to ICANN's Motion to Dismiss

26 January 2021

ICANN's Motion to Dismiss Claimant's Request for Independent Review Process

13 January 2021

Procedural Order No. 5 24 December 2020

Claimant's Prima Facie Showing of Standing

21 December 2020

Procedural Order No. 4 17 December 2020
Procedural Order No. 3 3 December 2020
Procedural Order No. 2 27 October 2020
Procedural Order No. 1 27 August 2020

ICANN's Response to Claimant's Request for Independent Review Process [PDF, 314 KB]

10 April 2020

Emergency Panelist Decision on Claimant's Request for Interim Measures of Protection

20 March 2020

ICANN's Opposition to Claimant's Request for Interim Measures of Protection

11 March 2020

Emergency Panelist Procedural Order No. 1

03 March 2020

Notice of Independent Review Process

Request for Independent Review Process

Request for Interim Measures of Protection

26 February 2020
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."