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Fast Flux Hosting


ICANN 安全与稳定咨询委员会 (SSAC) 在 2008 年 3 月完成了一项有关 Fast Flux Hosting 的研究 , 鉴于 Fast Flux Hosting 牵涉许多不同的群体 ( 网络罪犯及其受害者、互联网服务提供商、提供 Web 托管服务的公司以及 DNS 注册管理机构和注册服务商 ), 所以可减少这种情况的途径有很多。这些途径中的大部分都需要各相关方协同合作 , 其中不乏 ICANN 范畴之外的合作。

按照 GNSO 委员会的指示 , 2008 年 3 月 26 日 , ICANN 工作人员发布了有关 Fast Flux Hosting 的《问题报告》。在报告中 , 工作人员建议 GNSO 发起更多的事实调查和研究工作 , 以找到解决 Fast Flux Hosting 问题的最佳做法。工作人员还表示 , 国家或地区代码域名支持组织 (ccNSO) 适于参加此类活动。

GNSO 委员会在其 2008 年 5 月 8 日的会议上 , 正式启动了政策制定流程 (PDP) , 它没有采纳任务组的方式 , 而是呼吁成立 Fast Flux 工作组。随后 , 在 2008 年 5 月 29 日的会议上 , GNSO 委员会通过了工作组章程 , 章程要求考虑以下问题 :

  • 谁是 Fast Flux 的受益者和受害者?
  • 谁会因停止 Fast Flux 活动而受益 , 谁会因此受到损害 ?
  • 注册管理执行机构是否参与或者可能参与 Fast Flux Hosting 活动 ? 如果是,他们是怎样操作的?
  • 注册服务商是否参与 Fast Flux Hosting 活动 ? 如果是 , 他们是怎样操作的 ?
  • Fast Flux Hosting 如何影响注册人?
  • Fast Flux Hosting 如何影响互联网用户?
  • 注册管理机构和注册服务商可以采取哪些技术手段 ( 如 : 更改 DNS 进行 更新的方法 ) 和政策措施 ( 如 : 更改注册管理机构 / 注册服务商协议或者更改约束注册人许可行为的规定 ) 来减少 Fast Flux 的负面影响 ?
  • 对注册人、注册服务商和 / 或注册管理机构开放或促进使用 Fast Flux Hosting 技术的做法设立相应的限制、准则或约束 , 有哪些正面或负面影响 ?
  • 这些限制、准则或约束会对产品和服务创新产生什么样的影响?
  • 在防范 Fast Flux 方面有哪些最佳做法可以使用 ?

工作组还会就 GNSO 的政策制定工作应涵盖哪些 Fast Flux 领域和不应涉及哪些 Fast Flux 领域 , 适当听取专家意见。

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."