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Resources

Afilias Domains No. 3 Limited (.WEB)

5 March 2020
12 February 2020
Claimant's Rebuttal to ICANN's Response to Claimant's Post-Hearing Arguments Regarding Time-Bar Issue 3 December 2019
ICANN's Response to Claimant's Post-Hearing Arguments Regarding Time-Bar Issue 27 November 2019
ICANN's Phase I Post-Hearing Brief 15 November 2019
Verisign's Phase I Post-Hearing Brief 15 November 2019
Nu Dotco's Statement Adopting and Joining Verisign's Phase I Post-Hearing Brief 15 November 2019
Claimant's Phase I Post-Hearing Brief 15 November 2019
ICANN's Supplemental Brief Regarding Phase I Issues 27 September 2019
Verisign's Supplemental Brief in Support of Its Request to Participate as Amicus Curiae in Independent Review Process 27 September 2019
Nu Dotco's Supplemental Brief in Support of Its Request to Participate as Amicus Curiae in Independent Review Process 27 September 2019
Claimant's Supplemental Brief on the Procedures Officer's Declaration and the Scope of Amicus Curiae Participation in Independent Review Process 27 September 2019
31 May 2019
21 March 2019
8 March 2019 – 9 April 2019
28 February 2019
12 February 2019
5 February 2019
5 February 2019
5 February 2019
Claimant's Responses to Procedures Officer's Questions Concerning the Drafting History of the Supplementary Procedures 28 January 2019
28 January 2019
16 January 2019
ICANN's Response to Procedures Officer's Questions Concerning Drafting History of the Supplementary Procedures 16 January 2019
Procedures Officer's Memorandum of 4 January 2019 Conference Call No. 1 5 January 2019
17 December 2018
11 December 2018
11 December 2018
Emergency Panelist's Scheduling Order No. 1 3 December 2018
27 November 2018
26 November 2018
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."