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OCTO Publications | By Date

Number Name Date
OCTO-014 Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) Technical Analysis
Also available in: Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish
September 2020
OCTO-013 DNS Purchasing Guide for Government Procurement Officers
Also available in: Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish
July 2020
OCTO-012 Review of the 2018 DNSSEC KSK Rollover published July 2020
OCTO-011 The Public Suffix List: A Guide for TLD Administrators May 2020
OCTO-010 Brief Overview of the Root Server System
Also available in: Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish
May 2020
OCTO-009 Technical Analysis of the EDPB Letter to BEREC April 2020
OCTO-008 Analysis of the Effects of COVID-19-Related Lockdowns on IMRS Traffic
Also available in: Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish
April 2020
OCTO-007 Study of the Prevalence of DNS Queries for CORP, HOME, and MAIL April 2020
OCTO-006 DNSSEC: Securing the DNS
Also available in: Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish
revised July 2020
OCTO-005 IETF Year in Review for 2019 January 2020
OCTO-004 5G Technology
Also available in: Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish
January 2020
OCTO-003 Local and Internet Policy Implications of Encrypted DNS revised April 2020
OCTO-002 Digital Object Architecture and the Handle System October 2019
OCTO-001 Security in the Spotlight: A Recap of IDS 2019 June 2019
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."