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Commissioned Documents

Commissioned Documents are commissioned by OCTO from an external third party. Opinions within these documents may not reflect the position of OCTO or ICANN org and are expressing an independent opinion from an external third party.

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Title Author(s) Date
The Creation and Administration of Unique Identifiers, 1967-2017 Bradley Fidler and Russ Mundy November 2020
DNS Magnitude – A Popularity Figure for Domain Names, and its Application to L-root Traffic Alexander Mayrhofer, Michael Braunöder and Aaron Kaplan – nic.at GmbH August 2020
Managing the Risks of Top-Level Domain Name Collisions. Findings for the Name Collision Analysis Project (NCAP) Study 1 Karen Scarfone, Scarfone Cybersecurity June 2020
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."