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互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (ICANN) 发挥的作用与进行的工作对互联网产生了了什么影响?

互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (ICANN) 在互联网的基础架构中发挥着独一无二的作用。通过与注册机构(例如 .com 或 .info 注册机构)和注册商(向个人和组织销售域名的公司)签订合同,互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (ICANN) 可以协助定义域名系统的运作方式与扩展方式。


互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (ICANN) 创建了注册商市场(以及认可系统),以便让互联网上的竞争更加激烈。结果,数百家公司都获得了销售域名的能力,这使得域名的费用大幅度降低 - 降幅达到 80%。如今,互联网基本结构单元的供应市场呈现出丰富而繁荣的态势。



互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (ICANN) 协助设计并实施了一种低成本的机制,用于解决域名所有权方面的争议。统一域名争议解决政策 (UDRP) 已被应用了数万次,用于解决所有权争议,同时可以避免诉诸法律所产生的高昂成本和复杂程序。


互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (ICANN) 批准将新“通用顶级域名”引入互联网 - 这是一个扩展可用在线空间的流程。到目前为止,互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (ICANN) 已经将 13 个新通用顶级域名引入互联网,其覆盖范围从 .asia 到 .travel,涉及的域名数量达到六百多万。互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (ICANN) 还制定了一个完善的流程,用于引入更多顶级域名 (TLD),这些域名正在进行最终确定,有望在 2010 年初开放申请。


互联网名称与数字地址分配机构 (ICANN) 在其决策制定流程中,采用了引入国际化域名 (IDN) 的指南,这开辟了以世界上的数百种语言注册域名的途径,会将互联网的应用和影响全面扩展到一个新高度。

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."