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xn--bck1b9a5dre4c Monthly Registry Reports

For contractual reasons, registry Report monthly reports are withheld until three months after the end of the month to which the report relates.

Registry Month Year Report File
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2023 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202301-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2023 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202301-en [CSV, 916 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202212-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202212-en [CSV, 916 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202211-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202211-en [CSV, 919 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202210-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202210-en [CSV, 916 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202209-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202209-en [CSV, 915 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202208-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202208-en [CSV, 914 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202207-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202207-en [CSV, 916 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202206-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202206-en [CSV, 916 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202205-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202205-en [CSV, 916 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202204-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202204-en [CSV, 914 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202203-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202203-en [CSV, 914 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202202-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202202-en [CSV, 915 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2022 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202201-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2022 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202201-en [CSV, 914 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202112-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202112-en [CSV, 912 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202111-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202111-en [CSV, 914 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202110-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202110-en [CSV, 913 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202109-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202109-en [CSV, 910 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202108-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202108-en [CSV, 908 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202107-en [CSV, 2.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202107-en [CSV, 910 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202106-en [CSV, 2.5 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202106-en [CSV, 911 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202105-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202105-en [CSV, 910 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202104-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202104-en [CSV, 912 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202103-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202103-en [CSV, 912 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202102-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202102-en [CSV, 910 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2021 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202101-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2021 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202101-en [CSV, 911 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202012-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202012-en [CSV, 912 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202011-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202011-en [CSV, 913 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202010-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202010-en [CSV, 913 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202009-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202009-en [CSV, 910 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202008-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202008-en [CSV, 912 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202007-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202007-en [CSV, 911 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202006-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202006-en [CSV, 911 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202005-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202005-en [CSV, 910 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202004-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202004-en [CSV, 915 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202003-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202003-en [CSV, 912 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202002-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202002-en [CSV, 914 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2020 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-202001-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2020 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-202001-en [CSV, 912 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201912-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201912-en [CSV, 913 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201911-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201911-en [CSV, 914 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201910-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201910-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201909-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201909-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201908-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201908-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201907-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201907-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201906-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201906-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201905-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201905-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201904-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201904-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201903-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201903-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201902-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201902-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2019 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201901-en [CSV, 1.7 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2019 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201901-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201812-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201812-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201811-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201811-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201810-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201810-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201809-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201809-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201808-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201808-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201807-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201807-en [CSV, 887 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201806-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201806-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201805-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201805-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201804-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201804-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201803-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201803-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201802-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201802-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2018 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201801-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2018 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201801-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201712-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201712-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201711-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201711-en [CSV, 888 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201710-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201710-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201709-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201709-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201708-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201708-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201707-en [CSV, 1.6 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201707-en [CSV, 1.0 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201706-en [CSV, 2.2 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201706-en [CSV, 1.1 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201705-en [CSV, 2.2 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201705-en [CSV, 1.1 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201704-en [CSV, 2.2 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201704-en [CSV, 1.1 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201703-en [CSV, 2.2 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201703-en [CSV, 1.1 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201702-en [CSV, 2.2 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201702-en [CSV, 1.1 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2017 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201701-en [CSV, 1.4 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c January 2017 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201701-en [CSV, 921 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201612-en [CSV, 1.4 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c December 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201612-en [CSV, 920 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201611-en [CSV, 1.3 KB]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c November 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201611-en [CSV, 923 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201610-en [CSV, 994 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c October 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201610-en [CSV, 894 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201609-en [CSV, 877 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c September 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201609-en [CSV, 897 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201608-en [CSV, 877 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c August 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201608-en [CSV, 897 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201607-en [CSV, 877 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c July 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201607-en [CSV, 897 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201606-en [CSV, 877 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c June 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201606-en [CSV, 897 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201605-en [CSV, 877 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c May 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201605-en [CSV, 897 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201604-en [CSV, 877 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c April 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201604-en [CSV, 896 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201603-en [CSV, 877 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c March 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201603-en [CSV, 895 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2016 Transactions Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-transactions-201602-en [CSV, 877 bytes]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c February 2016 Activity Report xn--bck1b9a5dre4c-activity-201602-en [CSV, 909 bytes]
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."