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Little Birch LLC and Minds + Machines Group Limited v. ICANN (.ECO) & Despegar Online SRL, Donuts Inc., Famous Four Media Limited, Fegistry LLC, and Radix FZC v. ICANN (.HOTEL)

Final Declaration [PDF, 2.15 MB]

Redaction Determination [PDF, 57 KB]

12 February 2016

ICANN's Sur-Reply to the Reply of Despegar Online SRL, Donuts Inc., Famous Four Media Limited, Fegistry LLC and Radix FZC (.HOTEL) [PDF, 854 KB]

10 November 2015

ICANN's Sur-Reply to the Reply of Little Birch, LLC and Minds + Machines Group Limited (.ECO) [PDF, 862 KB]

10 November 2015

Additional Submission Reply to ICANN's Response By Despegar Online SRL, Donuts Inc., Famous Four Media Limited, Fegistry LLC, and Radix FZC [PDF, 5.61 MB]

19 October 2015

Additional Submission Reply to ICANN's Response By Little Birch and Minds + Machines Group Limited [PDF, 4.92 MB]

19 October 2015

Procedural Order No. 1 [PDF, 58 KB]

3 September 2015

ICANN's Response to Little Birch and Minds + Machine Group Limited's Request for Independent Review Process [PDF, 712 KB]

27 April 2015

ICANN's Response to Despegar Online, Donuts, Famous Four Media, Fegistry and Radix's Request for Independent Review Process [PDF, 695 KB]

17 April 2015

Notice of Independent Review Process from Little Birch and Minds + Machine Group Limited [PDF, 432 KB]

Request for Independent Review Process from Little Birch and Minds + Machine Group Limited [PDF, 664 KB]

24 March 2015

Notice of Independent Review Process from Despegar Online, Donuts, Famous Four Media, Fegistry and Radix [PDF, 793 KB]

Request for Independent Review Process from Despegar Online, Donuts, Famous Four Media, Fegistry and Radix [PDF, 3.41 MB]

10 March 2015

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."