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Singapore Fellowship Participants

A group photo of the Singapore49 fellowship participants
  • Oluwaseun Samson Ojedeji – Nigeria – Academic / Registry
  • Xandra Fong – Fiji – Not for Profit
  • Yungyung Teng – People's Republic of China – Government / IPC
  • Mamadou Lo – Senegal – Business
  • Maricarmen Sequera – Paraguay – End User
  • João Carlos Rebello Caribé – Brazil – Not for Profit / NCUC
  • Md. Jahangir Hossain – Bangladesh – Not for Profit / NPOC
  • Inam Ali – Jordan – Civil Society
  • Hanen Idoudi – Tunisia – Academic
  • Farzaneh Badiei – Iran – End User
  • Karel Douglas – Trinidad and Tobago – Government
  • Bukola Fawole – Nigeria – Academic
  • Pascal Guillaume Bekono – Cameroon – Government / At Large
  • Ephraim Percy Kenyanito – Kenya – End User
  • Shakeel Ahmed – Pakistan – End User
  • Yousef Torman – Jordan – Academic
  • Rommel Natividad – Marshall Islands – Government / GAC
  • Taravatu Arua Taravatu – Papua New Guinea – Government
  • Gul-e Rana – Pakistan – Academic
  • Wisdom Kwasi Donkor – Ghana – Government
  • Rahul Sharma – India – Not for Profit
  • Zakir Syed – Pakistan – Not for Profit
  • Mario Aleman Zapata – Nicaragua – Not for Profit
  • Bonface Witaba – Kenya – Not for Profit / NPOC
  • Etuate Cocker – Tonga – Academic
  • Lianna Galstyan – Armenia – Not for Profit
  • Benjamin Akintunde Akinmoyeje – Nigeria – Not for Profit / NCUC
  • Philip Adar – Kenya – Business
  • Bram Fudzulani – Malawi – Business / ISP and ASO
  • Matilda Pamao – Papua New Guinea – Academic / ccNSO
  • Vernon O'Brien – Dominica – Government
  • Valentina Pavel Burloiu – Romania – Not for Profit / At large
  • Hasnaa Soraya Melyani – Morocco – End User
  • Zhang Zuan – People's Republic of China – Not for Profit / member NCUC
  • Jason Hynds – Barbados – Not for Profit / At Large
  • Mohamed Elshaikh – Sudan – End User
  • Walid Al-Saqaf – Yemen – Academic / NCUC
  • Andreas Sifiso Dlamini – Swaziland – Government
  • Anthony Niiganii, Gunela Astbrink, and Mercy Moyo: At Large Mentor Program and honorary fellows
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."