Skip to main content
Resources

Ruby Glen, LLC v. ICANN

Plaintiff's Notice of Appeal Regarding Dismissal [PDF, 35 KB]

20 December 2016

Judgment [PDF, 38 KB]

28 November 2016

Court Order Granting Motion to Dismiss First Amended Complaint [PDF, 62 KB]

28 November 2016

Plaintiff's Reply in Support of Motion for Leave to Take Third Party Discovery or, in the Alternative, Motion for the Court to Issue Scheduling Order [PDF, 363 KB]

14 November 2016

ICANN's Reply in Support of Motion to Dismiss First Amended Complaint [PDF, 203 KB]

14 November 2016

ICANN's Opposition to Motion for Leave to Take Third Party Discovery or, in the Alternative, Motion for the Court to Issue Scheduling Order [PDF, 186 KB]

7 November 2016

Plaintiff's Opposition to ICANN's Motion to Dismiss First Amended Complaint [PDF, 624 KB]

7 November 2016

ICANN's Notice of Motion to Dismiss First Amended Complaint [PDF, 120 KB]

26 October 2016

Plaintiff's Notice of Motion and Motion for Leave to Take Third Party Discovery or, in the Alternative, Motion for the Court to Issue a Scheduling Order [PDF, 305 KB]

26 October 2016

Court Order on Second Stipulation on ICANN's Response Date to Amended Complaint [PDF, 134 KB]

16 September 2016

Court Order on Stipulation on ICANN's Response Date to Amended Complaint [PDF, 136 KB]

23 August 2016

Amended Complaint [PDF, 614 KB]

8 August 2016

Court Order Denying Plaintiff's Ex Parte Application for Temporary Restraining Order [PDF, 72 KB]

26 July 2016

ICANN's Opposition to Ex Parte Application for Temporary Restraining Order [PDF, 255 KB]

25 July 2016

Plaintiff's Ex Parte Application for Temporary Restraining Order; Memorandum of Points and Authorities [PDF, 812 KB]

22 July 2016

Complaint [PDF, 535 KB]

22 July 2016
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."