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Marrakesh 2019 Fellowship Participants

Photo of Fellowship Participants
  • Abdeljalil Bachar Bong – Chad – Civil Society, Technical
  • Ahmed Farag – Egypt Arab Republic of – Government, Internet End User
  • Betty Fausta – Guadeloupe – Civil Society, Technical
  • Caleb Olumuyiwa Ogundele – Nigeria, Civil Society, Academia
  • Chokri Ben Romdhane – Tunisia – Academia, Civil Society, Technical
  • Desara Dushi – Albania – Academia, Civil Society
  • Fabiano Barreto – Brazil – Business, Intellectual Property
  • Fouad Riaz Bajwa – Pakistan – Academia, Civil Society, Technical
  • Ioana Florina Stupariu – Romania – Academia
  • Isaac Maposa – Zimbabwe – Business, Internet End User
  • Isaura Aranda – Paraguay – Civil Society, Security
  • Jay Paudyal – India – Business, Civil Society
  • Jean Nahum Constant – Haiti – Academia, ccTLD Operations, Technical
  • Kristina Hakobyan – Armenia – ccTLD Operations
  • Kumar Goundar – Fiji – Academia, Civil Society, Technical
  • Lacier Dias – Brazil – Internet Service and Connectivity Providers, Technical
  • Lia Patricia Hernandez Perez – Panama – Academia, Internet End User
  • Lilian Ivette De Luque Bruges – Colombia – Internet End User, Security
  • Louise Marie Hurel Silva Dias – United Kingdom – Academia, Civil Society
  • Mesumbe Tomslin Samme-Nlar – Cameroon – Internet End User
  • Michael Casadevall – United States – Internet End User, Security, Technical
  • Mohammed Yousif – Sudan – ccTLD Operations, Government
  • Onica Makwakwa – South Africa – Civil Society
  • Patrick Nolye – Papua New Guinea – Academia
  • Paul Muchene – Kenya – Technical
  • Peterking Quaye – Liberia – Civil Society, Government
  • Radhika Cherie Lagakali – Fiji – Civil Society, Internet End User, Technical
  • Raihanath Bandele Adjoke Gbadamassi – Benin – Civil Society, Security
  • Rudolph Daniel – Saint Vincent And The Grenadines – Civil Society, Internet Service and Connectivity Providers
  • Salvador Camacho Hernandez – Mexico – Intellectual Property, Academia
  • Shreedeep Rayamajhi – Nepal – Internet End User
  • Wisdom Kwasi Donkor – Ghana – Business, Internet End User, Security


  • Alejandra Reynoso Barral – ccNSO
  • Amrita Choudhury – ALAC
  • Andrew Mack – GNSO
  • Mistura Aruna – GAC
  • Rao Naveed Bin Rais – RSSAC
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."