Skip to main content
Resources

Marrakech 2016 Fellowship Participants

Photo of Fellowship Participants

Adetola Sogbesan – Business – Nigeria
Alagie Ceesay – Technical – Gambia
Amrita Choudhury – Civil – India
Anand Raje – Technical – India
Aris Ignacio – Academic – Philippines
Arsene Tungali Baguma – Civil – Democratic Republic of the Congo
Aubrey Pennyman – ccTLD Operations – Bahamas
Bram Fudzulani – Business / At Large – Malawi (Coach)
Carlos Eduardo Rodriguez Aviles – Civil – Nicaragua
Claudine Sugira – ccTLD Operations – Rwanda (Coach)
Fabricio Valmorbida Marçal Pessôa – Security – Brazil
Gangesh Sreekumar Varma – Academic – India
Halefom Hailu Abraha – Gov't – Ethiopia
Hamid Khalafi – Civil – Morocco
Hamza Ben Mehrez – Civil – Tunisia (Coach)
Hashim Nouman – Technical – Pakistan
Hiba Abbas Yousif Eltigani – Civil – Sudan
Ines Hfaiedh – Academic – Tunisia
John Sushil Chand – Technical – Fiji
Jose Raul Solares Chiu – Gov't / GAC – Guatemala
Lianna Galstyan – Civil – Armenia
Madhvi Gokool – Technical – Mauritius
Mahdi Taghizadeh – Technical – Iran (Coach in Training)
Maritza Yesenia Aguero Minano – Civil – Peru (Coach)
Mark William Datysgeld – Academic – Brazil
Michael Ilishebo – Gov't – Zambia
Mohamed Majdoubi – Civil – Morocco
Nadira Alaraj – Civil – State of Palestine (Coach)
Nomsa Muswai Mwayenga – Civil – Zimbabwe
Olga Bambashi – Business – West Bank and Gaza
Onica Nonhlanhla Makwakwa – Civil – South Africa
Osama Tamimi – Technical – State of Palestine (Coach)
Rajeewa Abeygunarathna – Gov't – Sri Lanka
Shabbir Muhammad – Academic – Pakistan
Shavat Sabirov – Civil –Kazakhstan
Sonam Keba – Business – Bhutan
Wen Zhai – Civil Society / Registry SG – China
Wisdom Kwasi Donkor – Gov't – Ghana (Coach)

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."