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IDN Relevant Board Resolutions

IDN ccTLD Fast Track Process

Refinement of string similarity review in IDN ccTLD Fast Track Process

Refinement of second similarity review for the evaluation of the IDN ccTLD applications

Update to IDN ccTLD Fast Track Implementation

ccNSO Amendment to the Fast Track Implementation Plan

Proposed Implementation Plan for Synchronized ccTLD IDNs

Principles for Handling Synchronized IDN ccTLDs for the Fast Track Process

Approval of Final Implementation Plan for IDN ccTLD Fast Track Process

IDN Implementation Guidelines

Approval of Guidelines for Implementation of Internationalized Domain Names Version 4.1

Endorsement of IDN Guidelines Revision

Proposed Guidelines for Implementation of IDN's, v.2.0

Endorsement of IDN Implementation Approach

IDN Variant TLD Implementation

Recommendations for the Technical Utilization of the Root Zone Label Generation

Recommendations for Managing the IDN variant TLDs

IDN Variant TLD Root LGR Procedure and User Experience Study Recommendations

Variant Management

IDN Variants

Board Working Groups

Board IDN Working Group

Approval of Membership of IDN Variants Working Group

Conclusion of Working Group on Equivalent Strings Support

Formation of Board Working Group on Equivalent Strings Support


SSAC Advisory on the Use of Emoji in Domain Names

Single Character IDN Update

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."