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政策更新 - 背景


ICANN 董事会于 2000 年的一项决议指示员工建立一个地理区域系统 , 通过按照联合国统计司当前的分类将相关国家/地区分配到相应的地理区域 , 从而确保 ICANN 董事会构成的区域多样化。此后 , 该系统以各种方式进行过扩充 , 以便应用于各类 ICANN 社群架构 , 包括 GNSO 、 ALAC 和 ccNSO 。

《 ICANN 章程》目前规定了五个地理区域 , 分别为非洲、北美洲、拉丁美洲 / 加勒比、亚洲 / 澳大利亚 / 太平洋以及欧洲 — 此外还扩大了 “ 来自某个非国家地区的人应按该地区的国籍归类 ” 这一概念 , 从而使该地区或领地本身也以同样的方式分配到 “ 母国 ” 区域中。

随着时间的推移 , 各类社群成员对 ICANN 地理区域的划分及相关代表问题产生了疑虑。去年 ,ccNSO 委员会通过了一项决议 , 建议 ICANN 董事会任命一个覆盖全社群的工作组深入研究和评审与 ICANN 地理区域定义有关的问题 , 并咨询所有的利益主体 , 然后向董事会提交建议书 , 以解决与目前 ICANN 地理区域定义有关的问题。

ICANN 董事会于 2007 年 11 月 2 日在洛杉矶举行的会议上明确指出 , 对 ICANN 地理区域的任何更改都会在 ICANN 内产生广泛的影响 , 因此董事会需寻求支持组织以及咨询委员会的看法。董事会要求 ICANN 社群 , 包括 GNSO 、 ccNSO 、 ASO 、 GAC 以及 ALAC, 就 ccNSO 委员会有关 ICANN 地理区域的决议向 ICANN 员工提供意见。

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."