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The Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users navigate the Internet. Every device on the Internet has a unique address called an Internet Protocol (IP) address. IP addresses can be hard to remember. The DNS makes using the Internet easier by allowing a text-based domain name to be used instead of the IP address.

IP Addresses

Every Internet-connected device has a unique IP address. IP addresses consist of a series of numbers and letters. For example, the ICANN website IP address is

Domain Names

A domain name consists of two or more textual segments separated by dots, such as A domain name identifies a specific address on the Internet that belongs to an entity such as a company, organization, institution, or individual.


The DNS connects the IP address to the domain name to help users navigate the Internet.

If you want to visit the ICANN website, you simply type into your browser. Your device uses the DNS to look up the domain name and find its associated IP address. The DNS is the address book of the Internet.

DNS Infographic

If you want to learn more about how it works, explore ICANN organization's DNS infographic.

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."