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域名滥用活动报告 (DAAR) 中的国家和地区顶级域

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为了增强域名滥用活动报告 (Domain Abuse Activity Reporting, DAAR) 对 ICANN 社群的有效性,2019 年 11 月,国家和地区顶级域 (Country Code Top-Level Domain, ccTLD) 受邀参与由 ICANN 首席技术官办公室 (Office of the Chief Technology Officer, OCTO) 设计的 DAAR 系统。

参与本项目时,我们请求 ccTLD 经理人向 DAAR 系统自愿提供他们的域文件。这些域文件将仅用于 DAAR 系统,且不会出于任何其他目的进行使用或分享,或者被放置在 ICANN 的集中化域资料服务 (Centralized Zone Data Service, CZDS) 中。参与本项目的各个 ccTLD 每天都能够通过 ICANN 的监督系统应用程序编程接口 (MoSAPI) 接收到 DAAR 数据。

此外,OCTO 还为参与进来的 ccTLD 提供定制化的月度报告。这些报告囊括了对每个 ccTLD 提交的数据进行的具体分析,且这些数据仅与相应的 ccTLD 经理人进行分享。在每份报告中,该 ccTLD 的相关统计数据都将与所有其他 ccTLD 和通用顶级域 (gTLD) 的数据进行匿名比较。这种定制化报告旨在帮助 ccTLD 了解自身与其他顶级域 (TLD) 相比,在信誉拦截列表 (Reputation Block List, RBL) 中各提供商提交的安全威胁数据上处在一个怎样的位置。这些文件是对现有的 DAAR 月度报告和每日安全威胁评分的补充。

迄今为止,已有 19 个 ccTLD 加入了该项目。

  1. .au
  2. .se
  3. .tw
  4. .cl
  5. .nu
  6. .ee
  7. .tz
  8. .gt
  9. .sv
  10. .mw
  11. .gg
  12. .je
  13. .ch
  14. .ke
  15. .in
  16. .ca
  17. .li
  18. .co
  19. .fo
  20. .fr
  21. .pt

我们衷心感谢这些 ccTLD 的经理人自愿参与到 DAAR 项目中来,帮助我们从根源上应对域名滥用。

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."