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向塔瑞克·卡梅尔 (Tarek Kamel) 致敬


塔瑞克·卡梅尔 (Tarek Kamel) 博士与世长辞。ICANN 社群深切哀悼这位为全球互联网治理事务做出卓越贡献的互联网先锋人物。

塔瑞克在互联网生态系统中广受尊重,在 ICANN 组织和社群中也受到各位同事的敬爱。他作为 ICANN 的总裁高级顾问兼政府和国际政府间组织 (IGO) 合作高级副总裁,率领 ICANN 与各国政府、各个部委和涉及互联网治理事务的国际政府间组织之间构建牢固的关系。塔瑞克对多利益相关方治理模型充满了热情,致力于为全球所有人民构建一个强大、稳定和互用的互联网。

在他于 2012 年加入 ICANN 高级管理层之前,他曾是埃及信息技术社群中的核心人物。他帮助埃及首次连上互联网,并促进埃及引进商业互联网服务。1999 年,塔瑞克加入了刚刚设立的埃及通信和信息技术部 (Egyptian Ministry of Communications and Information Technology),并于 2004 年 7 月至 2011 年 2 月升任通信和信息技术部部长。此外,在其职业生涯中,他还担任过多家机构的董事,包括:埃及国家电信监管机构 (National Telecom Regulatory Authority of Egypt)、埃及电信 (Telecom Egypt) 和支持新创企业和孵化器的埃及私营-公共技术发展基金 (Private Public Technology Development)。

塔瑞克在广大互联网社群中名声显赫。他创立了国际互联网协会 (Internet Society, ISOC) 埃及分会,并曾担任 ISOC 的一名全球董事。他还在埃及主办了多次地区性和国际性的 ICANN、互联网治理论坛 (Internet Governance Forum) 和国际电信联盟 (International Telecommunication Union) 的活动。他坚信要为所有人提供访问互联网的机会,并启动了许多国家级倡议来加大互联网和宽带技术在埃及和非洲的渗透率。他还是非洲网络信息中心 (AFRINIC) 的创始人之一和董事,并在阿拉伯国家联盟 (League of Arab States) 和非洲联盟 (African Union) 中担任高级部长级职务。

卡梅尔博士出生于埃及,持有开罗大学 (Cairo University) 的电子工程学本科和研究生学位,并荣获慕尼黑工业大学 (Technical University of Munich) 计算机网络专业博士学位。他的妻子是开罗大学计算机科学专业副教授伊曼·埃尔阿扎布 (Iman El Azab) 女士,他们共同育有两个孩子:奥玛 (Omar) 和赫巴 (Heba)。塔瑞克已于癌症抗争多年。ICANN 社群与他的亲朋好友一起对他的去世表示深切哀悼。

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."