Skip to main content

Explore profiles

Profile image for Angelina Lopez

Angelina Lopez

United States of America

Communications & Project Manager

Profile image for Jia-Rong Low

Jia-Rong Low

VP, Stakeholder Engagement and Managing Director - Asia Pacific

Profile image for Mauro Lozano

Mauro Lozano

United States of America

Lead Infrastructure Engineer

Profile image for Breda Lund

Breda Lund

United States of America

Editorial Supervisor

Profile image for Odeline MacDonald

Odeline MacDonald


Associate General Counsel, European Data Protection

Profile image for Luna Madi

Luna Madi

Director, EMEA Communications

Profile image for Vera Major

Vera Major


Government and IGO Engagement Manager

Profile image for Catherine Maleki

Catherine Maleki

United States of America


Profile image for Samantha Mancia

Samantha Mancia

United States of America

Project Coordinator

Profile image for Terry Manderson

Terry Manderson

VP, Information Security and Network Engineering

Profile image for Antonietta Mangiacotti

Antonietta Mangiacotti

Policy Research Manager

Profile image for Richard Mannino

Richard Mannino

United States of America

Operations Specialist III

Profile image for Selim Manzak

Selim Manzak


Contractual Compliance Senior Specialist

Profile image for Karthika Marati

Karthika Marati

Sr. Software Engineer 1, QA

Profile image for Göran Marby

Göran Marby

United States of America

President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

Profile image for Nora Mari

Nora Mari


Government and IGO Engagement Manager

Profile image for Mariana Marinho

Mariana Marinho

United States of America

Public Responsibility Support Sr. Program Manager

Profile image for Veni Markovski

Veni Markovski

United States of America

VP, UN Engagement - New York

Profile image for Brian Martin

Brian Martin

United States of America

Senior Lead Information Security Engineer

Profile image for Aliza Martinez

Aliza Martinez

United States of America

Administrative Assistant

Profile image for Janelle McAlister

Janelle McAlister

United States of America

Strategic Initiatives Senior Program Manager

Profile image for Andrew McConachie

Andrew McConachie


Policy Development and Technology Director

Profile image for Becky McGilley

Becky McGilley

United States of America

Government and IGO Engagement Director

Profile image for Giose McGinty

Giose McGinty

United States of America

Stakeholder Engagement Regional Specialist, North America, and Latin America & Caribbean

Profile image for Nanig Mehranian

Nanig Mehranian

United States of America

Senior Program Manager

Profile image for Aline Menezes

Aline Menezes

United States of America

Senior Lead Infrastructure Engineer

Profile image for Henry Meyer

Henry Meyer

United States of America

Senior Director, Global HR Operations

Profile image for Diana Middleton

Diana Middleton

United States of America

Senior Program Manager

Profile image for Anand Mishra

Anand Mishra

United States of America

Director, Relationship & Delivery Management

Profile image for James Mitchell

James Mitchell

Director, Technical Services

Profile image for Stephanie Moench

Stephanie Moench

United States of America

Sr. Manager, Global Support

Profile image for Ali Mohammadi

Ali Mohammadi

United States of America

Senior Developer - Python

Profile image for Mona


United States of America

Executive Assistant to Office of the Chief Technology Officer

Profile image for Christopher Mondini

Christopher Mondini


Vice President, Stakeholder Engagement & Managing Director, Europe

Profile image for Sherwood Moore

Sherwood Moore

Review Support and Accountability Senior Manager

Profile image for Alex Morshed

Alex Morshed

United States of America

Sr. Manager, Financial Planning & Analysis

Profile image for Sabrina Mosquera

Sabrina Mosquera

Senior Language Expert - Head Interpreter

Profile image for Grant Nakata

Grant Nakata

United States of America

GDD Services Senior Manager

Profile image for Becky Nash

Becky Nash

United States of America

Vice President, Planning

Profile image for Andy Newton

Andy Newton

United States of America

GDS Technical Service Principal Engineer

Profile image for Marie Ngo

Marie Ngo

United States of America

HR Manager

Profile image for Erin O'neil

Erin O'neil

United States of America

Digital Media Specialist

Profile image for Bob Ochieng

Bob Ochieng


Stakeholder Engagement Senior Manager – Eastern & Southern Africa

Profile image for David Olive

David Olive

United States of America

SVP, Policy Development Support & Managing Director – Washington, D.C.

Profile image for Cassia Oliveira

Cassia Oliveira

Director, Office of the CEO

Profile image for Elizabeth Oluoch

Elizabeth Oluoch

United States of America

Government and IGO Engagement Director - UN/ITU

Profile image for Yin May Oo

Yin May Oo


IDN Program Coordinator

Profile image for Ria Otanes

Ria Otanes

United States of America

Travel Services Planner

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."