Skip to main content

Explore profiles

Profile image for Christine Willett

Christine Willett

VP, gTLD Operations

Profile image for Josephine Perez Wolfer

Josephine Perez Wolfer

United States

Legal Compliance Program Manager

Profile image for Mary Wong

Mary Wong

United States

Sr Director, Special Adviser for Strategic Policy Planning

Profile image for Renate De Wulf

Renate De Wulf


Global Stakeholder Engagement Operations Specialist & Executive Assistant

Profile image for Victoria Yang

Victoria Yang

United States

Organizational Assessment and Improvement Program Manager

Profile image for Holida Yanik

Holida Yanik


Contractual Compliance Specialist

Profile image for Susan Yao

Susan Yao

United States

Global Support Analyst II

Profile image for Philadel Yeo

Philadel Yeo

Regional Facilitator - APAC

Profile image for Joette Youkhanna

Joette Youkhanna

Project Manager II

Profile image for Winnie Young

Winnie Young

Sr Procurement Specialist

Profile image for Winnie Yu

Winnie Yu

United States

Registry Services & Engagement Manager

Profile image for Jian-Chuan Zhang

Jian-Chuan Zhang


Head of China, Global Stakeholder Engagement

Profile image for Samuel Zhou

Samuel Zhou

United States

Senior Java Developer

Profile image for William Ziemniak

William Ziemniak

United States

Facilities Assistant

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."