Skip to main content

Explore profiles

Profile image for Mary Wong

Mary Wong

United States of America

Vice President, Strategic Community Operations, Planning and Engagement

Profile image for Marie Woods

Marie Woods

United States of America

Executive Assistant

Profile image for Renate De Wulf

Renate De Wulf


Global Stakeholder Engagement Operations Specialist and Executive Assistant

Profile image for Victoria Yang

Victoria Yang

United States of America

Planning Senior Manager

Profile image for Holida Yanik

Holida Yanik


Contractual Compliance Senior Specialist

Profile image for Susan Yao

Susan Yao

United States of America

Global Support Analyst II

Profile image for Tammy Yeow

Tammy Yeow

Lead Global Support Analyst

Profile image for Hui Ying

Hui Ying


Contractual Compliance Analyst

Profile image for Jian-Chuan Zhang

Jian-Chuan Zhang


Head of China, Global Stakeholder Engagement

Profile image for Jin Zhang

Jin Zhang

United States of America

Senior Software Engineer

Profile image for Samuel Zhou

Samuel Zhou

United States of America

Technical Lead, Software Engineering

Profile image for William Ziemniak

William Ziemniak

United States of America

Facilities Assistant Manager

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."