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Michelle Bright

Board Content Coordination Director

Profile image for Jennifer Bryce

Jennifer Bryce

United Kingdom

Sr. Reviews Coordinator, Multistakeholder Strategy & Strategic Initiatives

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Duncan Burns

United States

SVP, Global Communications & Managing Director - Washington D.C. Office

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

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Desiree Cabrera

United States

Executive Assistant

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Jeanette Caldera

United States

HR Development & Learning Manager

Profile image for Xavier Calvez

Xavier Calvez

United States


DNS Marketplace

Profile image for Dongmei Cao

Dongmei Cao

Sr Engineering Team Lead

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Sara Caplis

United States

Manager, Meetings Technical Services

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Gwen Carlson

United States

Senior Director, GDD Communications

Profile image for Kimberly Carlson

Kimberly Carlson

United States

ccNSO Support Lead Administrator

Profile image for Tony Carpenter

Tony Carpenter

Administrative Assistant

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Lisa Carter

United States

Registry Services & Engagement Manager

Profile image for Kathryn Carver

Kathryn Carver

United States

VP for Government Engagement - Global Coordination

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Michael Cashin

Manager, End User Support

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Jessica Castillo

United States

Operations and Project Coordinator

Profile image for Leticia Castillo-Sojo

Leticia Castillo-Sojo

Manager, Contractual Compliance

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Joseph Catapano

United States

Stakeholder Engagement Manager, North America

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for James Caulfield

James Caulfield

United States

VP, Enterprise Risk Mangement

Profile image for Liz Chai

Liz Chai


Senior Accountant, APAC

Profile image for Jad Chamoun

Jad Chamoun

United States

Jr. Software Engineer

Profile image for Liane Champagne

Liane Champagne

United States

Senior Product Manager

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Steven Chan

United States

Policy Director, GNSO Support

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Dennis Chang

United States

GDD Services & Engagement Program Director

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Julia Charvolen

Julia Charvolen


GAC Services Lead Administrator

Profile image for Carlos Chavoya

Carlos Chavoya

Operations Specialist III

Profile image for Linda Chin

Linda Chin


Director, APAC Operations

Profile image for Joanna Choo

Joanna Choo


Human Resources Manager, APAC

Profile image for Genie Chou

Genie Chou

United States

Contractual Compliance Specialist

Profile image for Mukesh Chulani

Mukesh Chulani


Registrar Services & Engagement Sr Manager

Profile image for Chhun Chy

Chhun Chy

United States

Web Content Operations Supervisor

Profile image for Moises Cirilo

Moises Cirilo

United States

Meetings Technical Services Network Engineer

Profile image for Sharon Closa-Manigault

Sharon Closa-Manigault

United States

Payroll Specialist

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David Closson

United States

Director, Data Center & Cloud Operations

DNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldTechnology

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David Conrad

United States

SVP & Chief Technology Officer

Developing WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Janella Conroy

Janella Conroy

United States

Senior Administrative Assistant

Profile image for Lizette Contreras

Lizette Contreras

United States

Administrative Assistant

Profile image for Buket Coskuner

Buket Coskuner


Global Communications Coordinator

Profile image for Sally Costerton

Sally Costerton

Sr Advisor to President & SVP, Global Stakeholder Engagement

Profile image for Michelle Cotton

Michelle Cotton

United States

Protocol Parameters Sr. Manager

Profile image for John Crain

John Crain

Chief Security, Stability & Resiliency Office

Developing WorldTechnology

Profile image for Mia Crampton

Mia Crampton

Internal Communications Senior Manager

Profile image for Amy Creamer

Amy Creamer

United States

Strategic Project Manager - GDD

Profile image for Melanie Cruz

Melanie Cruz

United States

Meetings Project Manager

Profile image for Sagbo Pierre Dandjinou

Sagbo Pierre Dandjinou

VP, Stakeholder Engagement - Africa

Profile image for Josh Daniel

Josh Daniel

Director, Global HR – Compensation

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."