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Profile image for Desiree Cabrera

Desiree Cabrera

United States

Executive Assistant

Profile image for Jeanette Caldera

Jeanette Caldera

United States

HR Development & Learning Manager

Profile image for Xavier Calvez

Xavier Calvez

United States


DNS Marketplace

Profile image for Dongmei Cao

Dongmei Cao

Sr Engineering Team Lead

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Sara Caplis

United States

Manager, Meetings Technical Services

Profile image for Gwen Carlson

Gwen Carlson

United States

Senior Director, GDD Communications

Profile image for Kimberly Carlson

Kimberly Carlson

United States

ccNSO Support Lead Administrator

Profile image for Tony Carpenter

Tony Carpenter

Administrative Assistant

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Lisa Carter

United States

Registry Services & Engagement Manager

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Kathryn Carver

United States

VP for Government Engagement - Global Coordination

Profile image for Michael Cashin

Michael Cashin

Manager, End User Support

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Jessica Castillo

United States

Associate Project Manager, Multistakeholder Strategy and Strategic Initiatives - Operations

Civil SocietyDeveloping WorldGovernment

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Leticia Castillo-Sojo

Manager, Contractual Compliance

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Joseph Catapano

United States

Stakeholder Engagement Manager, North America

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

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James Caulfield

United States

VP, Risk Management

Profile image for Liz Chai

Liz Chai


Senior Accountant, APAC

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Jad Chamoun

United States

Jr. Software Engineer

Profile image for Liane Champagne

Liane Champagne

United States

Senior Product Manager

Profile image for Steven Chan

Steven Chan

United States

Policy Director, GNSO Support

Profile image for Dennis Chang

Dennis Chang

United States

GDD Services & Engagement Program Director

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Julia Charvolen

Julia Charvolen


GAC Services Lead Administrator

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Carlos Chavoya

Operations Specialist III

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Joyce Chen


Sr. Manager, Global Stakeholder Engagement Strategy & Development

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Linda Chin

Linda Chin


Director, APAC Operations

Profile image for Joanna Choo

Joanna Choo


Human Resources Manager, APAC

Profile image for Genie Chou

Genie Chou

United States

Contractual Compliance Specialist

Profile image for Mukesh Chulani

Mukesh Chulani


Registrar Services & Engagement Sr Manager

Profile image for Chhun Chy

Chhun Chy

United States

Web Content Operations Supervisor

Profile image for Moises Cirilo

Moises Cirilo

United States

Meetings Technical Services Network Engineer

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David Closson

United States

Director, Data Center & Cloud Operations

DNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldTechnology

Profile image for Sally Newell Cohen

Sally Newell Cohen

United States

SVP, Global Communications

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Isabelle Colas

United States

Senior Project Coordinator - GDD Strategic Initiatives

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David Conrad

United States

SVP & Chief Technology Officer

Developing WorldGovernmentTechnology

Profile image for Janella Conroy

Janella Conroy

United States

Senior Administrative Assistant

Profile image for Lizette Contreras

Lizette Contreras

United States

Administrative Assistant

Profile image for Buket Coskuner

Buket Coskuner


Global Communications Coordinator

Profile image for Sally Costerton

Sally Costerton

Sr Advisor to President & SVP, Global Stakeholder Engagement

Profile image for Michelle Cotton

Michelle Cotton

United States

Protocol Parameters Sr. Manager

Profile image for Pamela Howard MBA CPA

Pamela Howard MBA CPA

United States

Sr. Manager, Performance Measurement and Reporting

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John Crain

Chief Security, Stability & Resiliency Office

Developing WorldTechnology

Profile image for Mia Crampton

Mia Crampton

Internal Communications Senior Manager

Profile image for Amy Creamer

Amy Creamer

United States

Strategic Project Manager - GDD

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Sagbo Pierre Dandjinou

VP, Stakeholder Engagement - Africa

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Albert Daniels

Saint Lucia

Stakeholder Engagement Sr Manager -The Caribbean

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

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Alexandra Dans


Latin America and the Caribbean Communications Senior Manager

Developing WorldTechnology

Profile image for Kim Davies

Kim Davies

VP, IANA Services and President, PTI

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."