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Anthony Bruneio

United States of America

End User Support


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Jennifer Bryce

United States of America

Review Support & Accountability Project Manager

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Desiree Cabrera

United States of America

Executive Assistant

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Jeanette Caldera

United States of America

HR Development & Learning Sr. Manager

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Xavier Calvez

United States of America

Senior Vice President, Planning and Chief Financial Officer

DNS Marketplace

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Dongmei Cao

United States of America

Sr Engineering Team Lead

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Sara Caplis

United States of America

Sr. Manager, Meetings Technical Services

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Lead Security, Stability & Resiliency Specialist

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Gwen Carlson

United States of America

Senior Director, GDD Communications

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Kimberly Carlson

United States of America

ccNSO Support Lead Administrator

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Tony Carpenter

Administrative Assistant

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Franco Carrasco


Board Operations Specialist

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Lisa Carter

United States of America

gTLD Accounts Manager

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Kathryn Carver

United States of America

Senior Vice President for Government and Intergovernmental Organization (IGO) Engagement

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Michael Cashin

United States of America

Sr. Manager, End User Support

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Leticia Castillo

United States of America

Director, Contractual Compliance

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Joseph Catapano

United States of America

Stakeholder Engagement Manager, North America

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

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Justin Caton

United States of America


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James Caulfield

United States of America

Risk Management Vice President

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Liz Chai


Senior Accountant, APAC

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Liane Champagne

United States of America

Senior Product Manager

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Steven Chan

United States of America

Senior Director, GNSO Support

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Ivan Chang

United States of America

Sr. Paralegal

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Julia Charvolen


Advice and Policy Support and GAC Relations Manager

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Carlos Chavoya

Operations Specialist III

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Andrew Chen

United States of America

Research Project Analyst

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Jeff Chen

United States of America

QA Test Automation Engineer

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Peter Chen

United States of America

Systems Engineer

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Philip Chen

United States of America

Software Engineer

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Dickson Chew


Contractual Compliance Analyst

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Jean Chong


Global Stakeholder Engagement Regional Senior Manager -APAC

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Joanna Choo


Human Resources Manager, APAC

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Genie Chou

United States of America

Contractual Compliance Senior Specialist

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Mukesh Chulani


gTLD Accounts Senior Manager

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Chhun Chy

United States of America

Web Content Operations Supervisor

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Moises Cirilo

United States of America

Meetings Technical Services Network Senior Engineer

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David Closson

United States of America

Senior Director, Cloud/DC & MTS Operations

DNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldTechnology

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Sally Newell Cohen

United States of America

SVP, Global Communications

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Isabelle Colas

United States of America

Policy Research Specialist

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James Cole

United States of America

Sr. Global Communications Coordinator

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

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David Conrad

United States of America

SVP & Chief Technology Officer

Developing WorldGovernmentTechnology

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Sally Costerton

Sr Advisor to President & SVP, Global Stakeholder Engagement

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Michelle Cotton

United States of America

Protocol Parameters Sr. Manager

Profile image for Pamela Howard MBA CPA

Pamela Howard MBA CPA

United States of America

Sr. Manager, Performance Measurement and Reporting

Profile image for John Crain

John Crain

Chief Security, Stability & Resiliency Office

Developing WorldTechnology

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."