Skip to main content

Explore profiles

Profile image for Morgan Govaars

Morgan Govaars

Manager, Service Delivery

Profile image for Yuko Yokoyama

Yuko Yokoyama

United States of America

Program Director

Profile image for Peter Gregoris

Peter Gregoris

United States of America

GDD Operations Manager

Profile image for Gisella Gruber

Gisella Gruber

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Manager, Policy Development & Operations Support (At-Large)

Profile image for Steve Gwon

Steve Gwon

United States of America

Paralegal Services Manager

Profile image for Selina Harrington

Selina Harrington

United States of America

IANA Operations Manager

Profile image for Julie Hedlund

Julie Hedlund

United States of America

Policy Development Support Director (GNSO)

Profile image for Jamie Hedlund

Jamie Hedlund

United States of America

SVP, Contractual Compliance & U.S. Government Engagement

Profile image for Stacy Hoffberg

Stacy Hoffberg

Sr. Manager Events – Los Angeles

Profile image for Elizabeth Hoover

Elizabeth Hoover

United States of America

Global Human Resources Operations Director

Profile image for Alice Jansen

Alice Jansen


Implementation Operations Director - Reviews

Profile image for John Jeffrey

John Jeffrey

General Counsel & Secretary

Profile image for Susie Johnson

Susie Johnson

United States of America

Policy Operations Senior Specialist and Executive Assistant

Profile image for Zuhra Salijanova

Zuhra Salijanova

Sr. Manager, Contractual Compliance

Profile image for Tanzanica S. King

Tanzanica S. King

United States of America

Meeting Strategy and Design Director

Profile image for Elizabeth Le

Elizabeth Le

Associate General Counsel

Profile image for Karen Lentz

Karen Lentz

United States of America

VP Policy Research and Stakeholder Programs

Profile image for Karen Lettner

Karen Lettner

Administrative Support Manager

Profile image for Jia-Rong Low

Jia-Rong Low

VP, Stakeholder Engagement and Managing Director - Asia Pacific

Profile image for Gustavo Lozano Ibarra

Gustavo Lozano Ibarra

Director, Technical Services Projects

Profile image for Terry Manderson

Terry Manderson

VP, Information Security and Network Engineering

Profile image for Karthika Marati

Karthika Marati

Sr. Software Engineer 1, QA

Profile image for Brian Martin

Brian Martin

United States of America

Senior Lead Information Security Engineer

Profile image for Diana Middleton

Diana Middleton

United States of America

Senior Program Manager

Profile image for Anand Mishra

Anand Mishra

United States of America

Director, Relationship & Delivery Management

Profile image for Christopher Mondini

Christopher Mondini


Vice President, Stakeholder Engagement & Managing Director, Europe

Profile image for Sabrina Mosquera

Sabrina Mosquera

Senior Language Expert - Head Interpreter

Profile image for Grant Nakata

Grant Nakata

United States of America

GDD Services Senior Manager

Profile image for Bob Ochieng

Bob Ochieng


New gTLD Subsequent Procedures Sr. Director

Profile image for Cassia Oliveira

Cassia Oliveira

Director, Office of the CEO

Profile image for Ria Otanes

Ria Otanes

United States of America

Senior Travel Services Planner

Profile image for Krista Papac

Krista Papac

United States of America

Complaints Officer

Profile image for Wendy Profit

Wendy Profit

United States of America

Board Operations Senior Manager

Profile image for Reed Quinn

Reed Quinn

E&IT Infrastructure Manager

Profile image for Erika Randall

Erika Randall

Associate General Counsel

Profile image for Masoud Sahraian

Masoud Sahraian

Staff Software Engineer, QA Automation

Profile image for Naela Sarras

Naela Sarras

VP, Stakeholder Engagement - North America

Profile image for Vivek SenGupta

Vivek SenGupta

United States of America

Senior Director, Procurement

Profile image for Hope Shafer

Hope Shafer

Lead Operations Analyst

Profile image for Steve Sheng

Steve Sheng

United States of America

Senior Director, Policy Development Support & Technical Community Relations

Profile image for Maya Smundak

Maya Smundak

Senior Language Expert - Head Interpreter

Profile image for Darrel Spearman

Darrel Spearman

Senior Director, Administrative Services & Facilities

Profile image for Amy Stathos

Amy Stathos

Deputy General Counsel

Profile image for Yan Sun

Yan Sun

Sr. Software Engineer 1

Profile image for Theresa Swinehart

Theresa Swinehart

SVP, Global Domains and Strategy, Co-Deputy to the President and CEO

Profile image for Michelle Takamoto

Michelle Takamoto

United States of America

Global Senior Human Resources Business Partner

Profile image for Flauribert Takwa

Flauribert Takwa

United States of America

IT PMO Associate Project Manager

Profile image for Liana Teo

Liana Teo


Head of Communications, APAC

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."