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Yan Agranonik

United States of America

Senior Manager, Contractual Compliance Risk and Audit

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Steve Allison

United States of America

Senior Product Manager

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Fahd Batayneh


Stakeholder Engagement Sr. Manager - Middle East

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Xavier Calvez

United States of America

SVP, Planning and Chief Financial Officer (CFO)

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Dongmei Cao

United States of America

Senior Engineering Team Lead

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Franco Carrasco


Board Operations Specialist

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Mukesh Chulani


gTLD Accounts Senior Manager

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James Cole

United States of America

Sr. Global Communications Coordinator

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Pamela Howard MBA CPA

United States of America

Performance Measurement and Reporting Senior Manager, Contractual Compliance

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John Crain

Chief Security, Stability, and Resiliency Officer

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Albert Daniels

Saint Lucia

Stakeholder Engagement Senior Manager - Caribbean

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Baher Esmat

VP, Stakeholder Engagement - Middle East and Managing Director Middle East and Africa

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Marilia Hirano

United States of America

Manager, IANA Continuous Improvement

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John Jeffrey

General Counsel & Secretary

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Patrick L. Jones

United States of America

Senior Director, Global Stakeholder Engagement

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Jia Kimoto

United States of America

Project Manager I

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Jia Rong Low

VP, Stakeholder Engagement and Managing Director - Asia Pacific

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David Olive

United States of America

SVP, Policy Development Support

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Cassia Oliveira

Senior Manager, Office of the CEO

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Rodrigo De La Parra

VP, Stakeholder Engagement and Managing Director - Latin America and Caribbean

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Adam Peake

Civil Society Engagement Sr. Manager

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Erika Randall

Associate General Counsel

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Ashwin Rangan

United States of America

SVP, Engineering and Chief Information Officer (CIO)

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Masoud Sahraian

Lead QA Engineer

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David Soltero

United States of America

Sr. Lead Infrastructure Engineer – Architecture

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Heidi Ullrich

United States of America

VP, Policy Development and At-Large Relations

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Mary Wong

United States of America

Vice President, Strategic Community Operations, Planning and Engagement

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."