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Yan Agranonik

United States

Sr. Manager, Contractual Compliance Risk and Audit

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Fahd Batayneh

Jordan

Stakeholder Engagement Manager - Middle East

DNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldTechnology

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Susanna Bennett

SVP & Chief Operating Officer

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Jonathan Boswell

Lead Technical Writer

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Duncan Burns

United States

SVP, Global Communications & Managing Director - Washington D.C. Office

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

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Xavier Calvez

United States

SVP & CFO

DNS Marketplace

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Dongmei Cao

Sr Engineering Team Lead

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John Crain

Chief Security, Stability & Resiliency Office

Developing WorldTechnology

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Albert Daniels

Saint Lucia

Stakeholder Engagement Sr Manager -The Caribbean

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

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Quentin Duda

United States

Sr. Salesforce Developer & Integrator

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Dean Edwards

United States

Sr. Product Manager

DNS MarketplaceTechnology

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Baher Esmat

VP, Stakeholder Engagement - Middle East

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Marilia Hirano

United States

Manager, IANA Continuous Improvement

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Pamela Howard

United States

Sr. Manager, Performance Measurement and Reporting

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John Jeffrey

General Counsel & Secretary

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Patrick L. Jones

United States

Senior Director, Global Stakeholder Engagement

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Tarek Kamel

Sr Advisor to President & SVP, Government and IGO Engagement

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Jia Rong Low

Vice President, Stakeholder Engagement & Managing Director - Asia Pacific

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Richard Mannino

United States

Operations Specialist II

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David Olive

United States

SVP, Policy Development Support

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceGovernmentTechnology

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Cassia Oliveira

Sr Manager, Office of the CEO

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Rodrigo De La Parra

Vice President, Stakeholder Engagement & Managing Director - Latin America & Caribbean

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Gary Petzer

United States

VP Engineering, Stakeholder Community Solutions Delivery

Civil SocietyDeveloping World

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Erika Randall

Associate General Counsel

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Ashwin Rangan

United States

SVP Engineering & Chief Information Officer

Technology

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Carlos Reyes

United States

Policy Support & Community Service Sr. Manager

Civil SocietyDNS MarketplaceDeveloping WorldGovernmentTechnology

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Masoud Sahraian

Lead QA Engineer

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David Soltero

Lead DNS Engineer

Profile image for Victoria Yang

Victoria Yang

United States

Organizational Assessment and Improvement Sr. Specialist

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."