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ICANN 历史项目



ICANN 史鉴回顾了互联网的诞生与发展。

1969 年,全球互联网的前身暨美国国防部网络阿帕网 (Arpanet) 发出了首条信息。三年后,乔·波斯特尔 (Jon Postel) 开始用他的笔记本记录阿帕网的套接字编号。他的记录最终发展成为互联网号码分配机构 (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, IANA)。该机构负责管理域名系统 (Domain Name System, DNS) 的协调工作。

ICANN 成立于 1998 年,其发展成长是基于美国政府的一项承诺:将 DNS 的政策和技术管理权最终移交给一家位于美国境内、拥有全球参与机制的非营利企业。在互联网全球社群的辛勤工作和不懈努力下,IANA 管理权移交工作于 2016 年 10 月完成。

如需深入了解 ICANN 的历史,请查看以下各个主题中提供的访谈、互动时间表和其他资源。

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."