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Announcements

ICANN Community Onboarding Pilot Program Call for Nominations by SOs/ACs

LOS ANGELES – 20 November 2017 – ICANN has issued a call for nominations by the Supporting Organizations (SOs) and Advisory Committees (ACs) to the Community Onboarding Pilot (COP) Program for ICANN61. The COP seeks to improve ICANN community...

Recommendations on ICANN Jurisdiction

Open Date: 14 November 2017 Close Date: 05 January 2018 Originating Organization: Cross-Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability, Work Stream 2 (CCWG-Accountability,...

Recommendations to Improve ICANN Staff Accountability

Open Date: 13 November 2017 Close Date: 05 January 2018 Originating Organization: Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability (CCWG-Accountability) Categories/Tags: Staff Accountability;...

Recommendations to Improve ICANN's Office of Ombudsman (IOO)

Open Date: 10 November 2017 Close Date: 22 December 2017 Originating Organization: Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability (CCWG-Accountability) Categories/Tags: Office of...

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Multimedia

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The Future of the ICANN Board

ICANN's Brad White sits down with outgoing Board Chair, Steve Crocker, and new Board Chair, Cherine Chalaby, to discuss the future of the ICANN Board.

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Recapping GNSO Activities at ICANN60 and Looking Ahead to ICANN61

The leadership of the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) Council speaks to ICANN Policy Analyst, Ariel Liang, detailing the progress made at ICANN60, as well as the priorities leading up...

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Steve Crocker Tribute Video

A tribute to Steve Crocker, former ICANN Board Chair, during ICANN60 in Abu Dhabi.

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Interview With Jonathan Zuck and Drew Bagley

Learn about the progress and next steps of the Competition, Consumer Trust, and Consumer Choice Review from CCT Chair Jonathan Zuck and CCT Independent Expert Drew Bagley. In this interview,...

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Blog Posts

ICANN Fellowship Program: Taking Stock of the Past and Looking Towards the Future

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Data Protection/Privacy Activity Recap

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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."