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A New L-Root Instance Established with ICANN and China's ZDNS Cooperation

Introduction of L-Root Instance in China Helps Mitigate Network Outages and Reduce DNS-Related Delays

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Beijing, China … A new L-Root instance has been installed in China, increasing the Domain Name System's (DNS) overall fault tolerance and its resilience against certain types of cyber threats, such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.

The launch of the L-root server node is a joint operation between ICANN and China's Internet Domain Name System Beijing Engineering Research Center (ZDNS). As the first Internet domain name system engineering research center in China that focuses on DNS operational and supporting technologies, ZDNS supplied the equipment necessary for the installation of the new L-Root node, in close collaboration with the Beijing Internet Institute.

"The introduction of the L-Root mirror will significantly increase the inter-networking efficiency of Chinese Internet. The improved infrastructure not only benefits the at-large Internet users with regards to their user experiences, but also provides a firm basis to various Internet applications," said Wei Mao, Director General of ZDNS.

The cooperation between the two organizations is an effort to enhance security, stability and resiliency to Chinese Internet users and reduce the response time experienced when making some DNS queries.

"The stability and resiliency of the global Internet continue to be strengthened with ZDNS installation of the L-Root instances," said ICANN President and CEO Fadi Chehadé.

"We're pleased to complete this second L-Root instance installation in China this year, after a similar cooperation with 21Vianet. ICANN will continue to work with other Chinese partners to bring in more L-Root instances into the country," said Kuek Yu-Chuang, Vice President and Managing Director for ICANN Asia Pacific Hub.

There are 13 "root" DNS servers, identified by alphabetic letters A through M - the "L" root server operated by ICANN being one. Computers typically communicate with each other using numeric addresses, while humans find it easier to use and remember names (for instance, users typically remember the domain name "ICANN.ORG" more easily than the Internet Protocol address, 2620:0:2d0:200::7). The DNS translates names into addresses and the root servers provide the pointers to the servers for top-level domains (the last part of domain names, for example, "ORG" in "ICANN.ORG"). Spreading this root information out geographically by duplicating the root servers leads to a resilient, dispersed system that reduces the risk of being taken offline by a problem or attack and reduces the time it takes to look up names on the Internet.

For more information about L-root, please visit

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Media Contacts

Liana Teo
Head of Communications, Asia Pacific
Tel: +65 6808 6669

Xueqi Zhang
Head of Communications
Beijing, China
Tel: +86 10 6250 6578


ICANN's mission is to ensure a stable, secure and unified global Internet. To reach another person on the Internet you have to type an address into your computer - a name or a number. That address has to be unique so computers know where to find each other. ICANN coordinates these unique identifiers across the world. Without that coordination we wouldn't have one global Internet. ICANN was formed in 1998. It is a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation with participants from all over the world dedicated to keeping the Internet secure, stable and interoperable. It promotes competition and develops policy on the Internet's unique identifiers. ICANN doesn't control content on the Internet. It cannot stop spam and it doesn't deal with access to the Internet. But through its coordination role of the Internet's naming system, it does have an important impact on the expansion and evolution of the Internet. For more information please visit:

About ZDNS

As a leading integrated domain name service provider in China, ZDNS is dedicated to providing clients one-stop domain name solutions, such as new gTLD application and back-end service, domain name cloud service, R&D on DNS-related technologies, and DNS appliances. ZDNS has become the largest new gTLD back-end provider in Asia, hosting 23 new gTLDs. For more information please visit:

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."