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根域标签生成规则编制的最大启动指令表版本1(MSR-1)

为了支持根域中的IDN标签,ICANN社群在董事会的指示下,启动了多个项目研究这些标签的可行性和授权问题,并提出相关建议。项目之一就是推行根域旗下IDNA标签的标签生成规则的制定和维护流程 [PDF, 1.39 MB] (该流程)使得为根域制定标签生成规则(LRG)成为可能。根域的LGR是关于根域IDN标签的制定和维护规则的一项机制。

在流程实施过程中,ICANN非常高兴地宣布整合专家组现已发布其第一版最大启动指令表(MSR-1)。MSR-1是整合小组在执行该流程时的首个工作成果,将作为一份固定的码点搜集表,供生成专家组在编制相应的LGR提案、构建指令表时做出选择。

MSR-1囊括了以下22种文字:阿拉伯文、孟加拉文、西里尔文、梵文、格鲁吉亚文、希腊文、吉吉拉特语、果鲁穆奇文、汉语、朝鲜文、希伯来文、日语平假名、埃纳德文、日语片假名、老挝语、拉丁文、马来亚拉姆文、奥里雅语、僧伽罗文、泰米尔文、泰卢固文和泰国语。MSR-1包含一份拥有32,790个码点的简短清单,源于统一域名编码(Unicode)第6.3版中列出的97,973个有效/语境码点。

MSR-1的发布为生成专家组搭建了工作的平台。除了从MSR中挑选指令而制定LGR提案以外,生成小组还将审核这些码点是否为变体,是否需要制定其他规则,进一步限制使用这类码点而生成的标签。生成小组最终确定的LGR提案将在根域LGR整合小组审阅之前公开发布以征询公众意见。如有再次发布LGR的必要,例如,当并非所有生成小组均可同时递交提案时,则可能导致发布LGR的后续版本。

MSR-1推迟了某些合格的文字,从而平衡发布时效性和发布全面性。往后,MSR的另一版本的制定则将包括推迟文字中的指令表,并对已经添加的其他指令进行担保。这将是任何后续LGR版本的基础。MSR的所有未来版本和LGR的所有版本必须保留完全追溯兼容性。

MSR-1发布包含以下文件:


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Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."