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When used in reference to the Domain Name System, the buying and selling of domains names that have already been registered and are available for sale by their current owners.
A periodic review required by the ICANN Bylaws to assess ICANN’s execution of its commitment to enhance the operational stability, reliability, resiliency, security, and global interoperability of the Internet’s system of unique identifiers.
Section 4.6 in the ICANN Bylaws provides details about performing an SSR Review. Reports from past reviews are available on the ICANN website, along with progress updates for any SSR Reviews that are underway.
A technique in which attackers attempt to exploit people’s natural inclinations to trust others and be helpful. For example, in a phishing scheme, attackers exploit their victims’ sense of trust using emails that appear to be from trusted person (e.g., a friend, family member, or coworker) or entity (e.g., a bank, reputable e-commerce site, or credit card company).
Social engineers also exploit other human inclinations such as curiosity, vanity, fear, or greed. Although social engineering often plays a role in cybercrime, the technique is frequently used in other types of crime.
Periodic reviews required by the ICANN Bylaws to assess and report on ICANN’s performance in key areas. These reviews provide a mechanism to assess and report on ICANN's progress toward fundamental organizational objectives. The Bylaws require four Specific Reviews:
Community-led review teams conduct these reviews as described in Section 4.6 of the ICANN Bylaws. Reports from past reviews are available on the ICANN website, along with progress updates for any Specific Reviews that are underway.
The Specific Reviews were formerly known as the Affirmation of Commitments (AoC) Reviews.
Within ICANN, any individual or entity that is directly or indirectly affected by the decisions or actions of the ICANN community, organization, or Board. ICANN stakeholders include registry operators, registrars, Internet service providers, businesses, civil society, Internet users, governments, research institutions, technical experts, and nongovernmental organizations.
A formally recognized body within the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) that represents a specific segment of the GNSO community. Stakeholder groups are specified in the ICANN Bylaws and hold designated seats on the GNSO Council. The GNSO has four stakeholder groups:
The forms that the two registrars involved in a domain name transfer use to obtain the authorizations necessary to perform the transfer. The FOAs help prevent the unauthorized transfer of a domain name.
To initiate a transfer, the gaining registrar uses the Initial Authorization for Registrar Transfer FOA to obtain authorization from one of the domain name’s transfer contacts. The gaining registrar is responsible for authenticating the identity of the individual who authorizes the transfer request.
In the New Generic Top-Level Domain Program (New gTLD Program), a scenario in which there is more than one qualified applicant for the same gTLD string or for strings that are so similar they create a probability of user confusion if more than one of the strings is delegated into the root zone.
A simple resolver that is a part of the operating system on an Internet user’s computer. When a user clicks a link or types a uniform resource locator (URL) in a web browser, the stub resolver sends a recursive query to a designated resolver. A recursive query instructs the resolver to either return the Internet Protocol (IP) address for the requested resource or return an error. Stub resolvers do not accept referrals to other name servers.
A domain that resides within a higher-level domain in the Domain Name System hierarchy. For example, the domains community.icann.org and gnso.icann.org are subdomains of the second-level domain icann.org. The domain icann.org is a subdomain of the top-level domain .org.
Subdomains can be delegated to specific entities. Registrars, for example, delegate second-level domains to registrants. The registrants can then delegate subdomains within their second-level domains.
In the New Generic Top-Level Domain Program (New gTLD Program), a period of at least 30 days during the launch of a new gTLD. During this period, trademark holders have an opportunity to register domain names corresponding to their marks before domain name registration is generally available to the public.
A service provided by the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) that allows trademark holders to register domain names associated with their marks before registration is generally available to the public. To use this service, trademark holders must have their marks and proof of use verified by the TMCH.
A formally recognized body under the ICANN Bylaws that is charged with developing policy recommendations for a particular area of ICANN's operations. Supporting Organizations are composed of volunteers from the community. The Bylaws recognize three SOs: