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A periodic review required by the ICANN Bylaws to assess ICANN’s execution of its commitment to maintain and improve robust mechanisms for public input, accountability, and transparency. The ATRT Review is designed to ensure that the outcomes of ICANN’s decision-making reflect the public interest and are accountable to the Internet community.
Section 4.6 in the ICANN Bylaws provides details about performing an ATRT Review. Reports from past ATRT Reviews are available on the ICANN website, along with progress updates for any ATRT Reviews that are underway.
A council within the Address Supporting Organization (ASO) that manages the ASO’s global policy development process. This council is composed of 15 members, including 3 representatives from each of the Regional Internet Registries. The members of this council also serve on the Number Resource Organization Number Council.
A nonprofit association of country code top-level domain (ccTLDs) registries in the African region. AFTLD provides a forum where its members can discuss policy matters affecting the ccTLD registries in their region. The association also serves as a channel of communication between its membership and Internet governance bodies such as ICANN.
The Regional At-Large Organization (RALO) that serves as the main forum and coordination point for public input to ICANN from the At-Large community in the African region. AFRALO keeps the At-Large Structures (ALSes) in its community informed about significant ICANN news. It also establishes mechanisms to facilitate two-way communication between the ALSes and ICANN policymakers, so ALS members can share their views on pending issues.
The third Public Meeting in ICANN’s three-meeting annual cycle. This meeting features workshops, working meetings, and sessions on topics of interest. Additionally, it provides two Public Forums where the ICANN community can speak directly with the ICANN Board. New members of the ICANN Board of Directors also take their seats at the Annual General Meeting.
A global coalition of industry, law enforcement, and governments that work to unify the global response to phishing attacks and other cybercrimes. The APWG is a clearinghouse for cybercrime event data, cybercrime response utilities, and programs that promote cybercrime awareness and research.
A server that responds to an anycast Internet Protocol (IP) address. With anycast routing, a server is replicated across multiple network locations. The servers are then assigned to the same anycast IP address. Each server assigned to that IP address is referred to as an anycast instance (or simply an instance). When a computer sends a message to an anycast IP address, Internet routers automatically direct the message to the nearest (in terms of routing distance) available instance of that server. Anycast routing helps reduce latency and improve reliability.
Many of the authoritative name servers in the Domain Name System use anycast routing.
In the New Generic Top-Level Domain Program (New gTLD Program), the completion of the application process for all gTLD applications received during one application submission period. The Applicant Guidebook explains the terms and conditions for a specific application round. Subsequent rounds are subject to updated guidebooks.
A nonprofit association of country code top-level domain (ccTLDs) registries in the Asia Pacific region. APTLD provides a forum where its members can discuss policy matters affecting the ccTLD registries in their region. The association also serves as a channel of communication between its membership and Internet governance bodies such as ICANN.
The Regional At-Large Organization (RALO) that serves as the main forum and coordination point for public input to ICANN from the At-Large community in Asia, Australasia, and the Pacific Islands. APRALO keeps the At-Large Structures (ALSes) in its community informed about significant ICANN news. It also establishes mechanisms to facilitate two-way communication between the ALSes and ICANN policymakers, so ALS members can share their views on pending issues.
A certified body of volunteers within a Regional At-Large Organization (RALO) that represents the interests and concerns of individual Internet users. Working with its RALO, an ALS enables individuals to share their views on ICANN issues, help shape global ICANN policies, and conduct outreach and engagement.
The ALSes are wholly independent of ICANN. Groups that serve as ALSes include professional societies (e.g., engineers, lawyers), Internet Society chapters, community networks, and computer user groups.
To serve as an ALS, a group must be certified by the At-Large Advisory Committee (ALAC). Some RALOs also certify individual Internet users in their region. As of January 2018, there were over 225 ALSes and a growing number of individual members around the world.
A Domain Name System (DNS) server that hosts the official database of resource records (the registry) for a DNS zone. The registry identifies the Internet Protocol (IP) addresses of the host servers (e.g., web servers, mail servers) and name servers in the authoritative name server’s zone. The resource records in its registry enable an authoritative name server to respond definitively to queries about the servers and subdomains within its zone.
To enable other computers to reach host servers within a domain, the domain must have one or more authoritative name servers. The name and IP addresses of those servers must also appear in the registry of the domain’s parent domain.
A code created by a registrar to help authenticate the registrant of a domain name in a generic top-level domain. The authorization code is a security measure to help prevent fraudulent or unauthorized transfers. This code is required for a registrant to transfer a domain name from one registrar to another.
Some registrars generate authorization codes for their registrants, and some allow registrants to generate their codes through a control panel on the registrar’s website. When registrants request an authorization code from the registrar, the registrar is obligated to provide the code within five days.
A 45-day period following the expiration of a domain name. If a registrant does not explicitly consent to renew the domain name, the registrar must delete the name from the registry by the end of the AGP. Often, registrars allow registrants to renew an expired name during this period.
A globally unique identifier given to an autonomous system (AS). An AS is a collection of Internet Protocol (IP) networks operated by one or more network operators. When an Internet user sends a message to an IP address that exists outside the user’s own AS, routers forward the message to the AS in which the address resides. In this respect, the Internet uses ASNs to route messages between autonomous systems in much the same way postal systems use postal codes to route physical mail between geographic regions.
ASNs are allocated to network operators by Regional Internet Registries.