A collection of symbols used for writing a language. There are three basic kinds of scripts. One is the alphabetic (e.g., Arabic, Cyrillic, Latin), with individual elements termed letters. A second is ideographic (e.g., Chinese), the elements of which are ideographs. The third is termed a syllabary (e.g., Hangul), with individual elements representing syllables. In order to be used in a computing environment, each element of a script needs to be numerically encoded.
Second-Level Label Generation Rules Reference(Second-Level LGR Reference)
A set of Label Generation Rules for a particular language or script, which has been reviewed for linguistic, security, and stability considerations and formally published as a reference for second-level domain names.
Security and Stability Advisory Committee(SSAC)
One of four Advisory Committees in the ICANN community. The SSAC advises the ICANN Board and the ICANN community on issues relating to the security and integrity of the Internet's naming and address allocation systems. Besides providing guidance on security matters during policy development, the SSAC monitors the Internet's naming and address allocation system for threats.
Security, Stability, and Resiliency(SSR)
- Security – the capacity to protect Internet Identifier Systems and prevent misuse.
- Stability – the capacity to ensure that Internet Identifier Systems operate as expected, and that users of these systems have confidence that the systems operate as expected or intended.
- Resiliency – the capacity of Internet Identifier Systems to effectively withstand, tolerate, or survive malicious attacks and other disruptive events without interruption or cessation of service.
Security, Stability, and Resiliency of the Domain Name System (DNS) Review(SSR Review)
A periodic review required by the ICANN Bylaws to assess ICANN’s execution of its commitment to enhance the operational stability, reliability, resiliency, security, and global interoperability of the Internet’s system of unique identifiers.
Section 4.6 in the ICANN Bylaws provides details about performing an SSR Review. Reports from past reviews are available on the ICANN website, along with progress updates for any SSR Reviews that are underway.
A technique in which attackers attempt to exploit people’s natural inclinations to trust others and be helpful. For example, in a phishing scheme, attackers exploit their victims’ sense of trust using emails that appear to be from trusted person (e.g., a friend, family member, or coworker) or entity (e.g., a bank, reputable e-commerce site, or credit card company).
Social engineers also exploit other human inclinations such as curiosity, vanity, fear, or greed. Although social engineering often plays a role in cybercrime, the technique is frequently used in other types of crime.
Periodic reviews required by the ICANN Bylaws to assess and report on ICANN’s performance in key areas. These reviews provide a mechanism to assess and report on ICANN's progress toward fundamental organizational objectives. The Bylaws require four Specific Reviews:
- Accountability and Transparency Review
- Security, Stability, and Resiliency of the Domain Name System (DNS) Review
- Competition, Consumer Trust, and Consumer Choice Review
- Registration Directory Service Review
Community-led review teams conduct these reviews as described in Section 4.6 of the ICANN Bylaws. Reports from past reviews are available on the ICANN website, along with progress updates for any Specific Reviews that are underway.
The Specific Reviews were formerly known as the Affirmation of Commitments (AoC) Reviews.
Within ICANN, any individual or entity that is directly or indirectly affected by the decisions or actions of the ICANN community, organization, or Board. ICANN stakeholders include registry operators, registrars, Internet service providers, businesses, civil society, Internet users, governments, research institutions, technical experts, and nongovernmental organizations.
A formally recognized body within the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) that represents a specific segment of the GNSO community. Stakeholder groups are specified in the ICANN Bylaws and hold designated seats on the GNSO Council. The GNSO has four stakeholder groups:
- Registry Stakeholder Group (RySG)
- Registrar Stakeholder Group (RrSG)
- Commercial Stakeholder Group (CSG)
- Non-Commercial Stakeholder Group (NCSG)
Standardized Form of Authorization(FOA)
The forms that the two registrars involved in a domain name transfer use to obtain the authorizations necessary to perform the transfer. The FOAs help prevent the unauthorized transfer of a domain name.
To initiate a transfer, the gaining registrar uses the Initial Authorization for Registrar Transfer FOA to obtain authorization from one of the domain name’s transfer contacts. The gaining registrar is responsible for authenticating the identity of the individual who authorizes the transfer request.