A set of services that registry operators of generic top-level domains (gTLD) provide under their Registry Agreements with ICANN. To modify existing registry services or offer new registry services, gTLD registry operators must obtain approval from ICANN as outlined in the Registry Services Evaluation Policy.
Registry System Testing(RST)
A set of tests to determine whether a registry operator has the capacity to operate a new generic top-level domain in a stable and secure manner. The RST checks critical registry functions as described in the Registry Agreement. Testing requirements vary depending on the services a registry operator supports.
Registry Transition Process(RTP)
Registry-Registrar Agreement Amendment Procedure(RRA Amendment Procedure)
The process for consideration of proposed amendments to generic top-level domain (gTLD) Registry-Registrar Agreements (RRAs) where the registry operator is required to obtain the ICANN organization's approval of such amendments. This process is designed to ensure registrar input (and public input where appropriate) before the ICANN organization approves changes to an RRA.
reputation block list(RBL)
A list of domain names, Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), or Internet Protocol (IP) addresses that are known security threats. Security systems throughout the Internet use RBLs to keep malicious or unwanted material from reaching victims. In addition to filtering out billions of incoming spam messages a day, RBLs block outgoing requests to malicious or disreputable IP addresses.
RBLs are created and maintained by commercial service providers, researchers, and public interest communities.
Request for Comments(RFC)
A document of record produced by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF), or the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). When the IETF develops an Internet standard, the standard is published as an RFC. The IAB, IRTF, and IETF also use RFCs to publish best practices and informational material.
Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre(RIPE NCC)
- Names of country code top-level domains
- Names related to ICANN
- Names related to the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions (such as example)
- Names of countries and territories
- Names of international and intergovernmental organizations
- Names that a registry operator uses in operating the gTLD
A Domain Name System (DNS) server that resolves host names on behalf of Internet users and applications (clients). Distributed throughout the Internet, a resolver performs iterative queries, starting at the root zone, to obtain the Internet Protocol (IP) address of a host computer requested by a client. Resolvers typically cache their query results so they can quickly retrieve the IP addresses for host names they have already resolved.
- NS records, which identify authoritative name servers for the domain itself and for any subdomains to which administrative authority has been delegated.
- MX records, which identify servers that handle email messages on behalf of the domain.
- A and AAAA records, which provide the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses (respectively) for a specified hostname.
Periodic assessments mandated by the ICANN Bylaws that are critical for maintaining the health of the multistakeholder model. These mechanisms help ICANN determine the effectiveness, transparency, and accountability of its organizations (Organizational Reviews) and gauge its performance with respect to key commitments and core values (Specific Reviews).
The person or entity that maintains a set of rights to a particular property. With respect to policy development regarding domain names, the term rightsholder often refers to a person, entity, or designee (such as a licensee or assignee) that holds intellectual property rights on a specific trademark.
Rights Protection Mechanism(RPM)
More generally, root can refer to the central authority for a hierarchical system. In this sense, it is sometimes used to refer to the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions, which maintain the root for many of the Internet’s naming and numbering systems.
root hints file
A file that provides the names and Internet Protocol (IP) addresses of the 13 authoritative name servers in the root zone of the Domain Name System. Recursive resolvers consult this file when resolving domain names whose IP addresses are not in local cache. The root hints file is often installed with the resolver software. It is also available from the root/files">Internet Assigned Numbers Authority website.