ICANN Announcements

Read ICANN Announcements to stay informed of the latest policymaking activities, regional events, and more.

ICANN Publishes Additional Second-Level Reference Label Generation Rules

31 January 2024

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) has published Second-Level Reference Label Generation Rules (LGRs) for the following scripts, Armenian, Cyrillic, Greek, Japanese, Korean, Latin, and Myanmar. ICANN has also updated other LGRs.

Second-Level Reference LGRs provide the rules to form valid domain name labels in different languages and scripts. They are published to improve the transparency and consistency of the Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) table review process and to facilitate registry operations. Generic top-level domain (gTLD) registries may use, or refer to, Second-Level Reference LGRs when developing IDN tables that suit their business needs. ICANN also reviews LGRs and IDN tables that are submitted by gTLD registries through the IDN Service.

The Second-Level Reference LGRs were developed in consultation with the respective script communities following detailed analysis of the Root Zone Label Generation Rules (RZ-LGR) and after a Public Comment proceeding. The new script-based Reference LGRs include Armenian, Cyrillic, Greek, Latin, Japanese, Korean, and Myanmar.

The 14 Reference LGRs with normative changes include the following languages and scripts:

  • Languages: Belarusian, Bosnian (Cyrillic), Bulgarian, English, French, German, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian
  • Scripts: Bangla (Bengali), Khmer, Sinhala

The remaining Reference LGRs have had their Unicode version updated without normative changes.

In total, 25 script-based and 31 language-based Reference LGRs have now been published:

  • 25 script-based LGRs: Arabic, Armenian, Bangla (Bengali), Chinese, Cyrillic, Devanagari, Ethiopic, Georgian, Greek, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Hebrew, Japanese (Hiragana, Katakana, Kanji [Han]), Kannada, Khmer, Korean (Hangul, Hanja [Han]), Lao, Latin, Malayalam, Myanmar, Oriya, Sinhala, Tamil, Telugu, and Thai.
  • 31 language-based LGRs: Arabic, Belarusian, Bosnian (Cyrillic), Bosnian (Latin), Bulgarian, Chinese, Danish, English, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, and Ukrainian.

Additional languages and scripts will be included in future releases as relevant community input becomes available.


ICANN's mission is to help ensure a stable, secure, and unified global Internet. To reach another person on the Internet, you need to type an address – a name or a number – into your computer or other device. That address must be unique so computers know where to find each other. ICANN helps coordinate and support these unique identifiers across the world. ICANN was formed in 1998 as a nonprofit public benefit corporation with a community of participants from all over the world.