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Indonesia's CITRANET Contributes to More Responsive and Resilient Internet with L-Root Instance in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Second L-Root Instance in Indonesia helps further decentralize the top level of the DNS, mitigate certain network outages, and reduce DNS-related delays

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Yogyakarta, Indonesia … The second L-Root instance in Indonesia has been successfully installed in Yogyakarta, increasing the Domain Name System's (DNS) overall fault tolerance and its resilience against certain types of cyber threats, such as Denial of Service (DoS) attacks.

The launch of the L-Root server node is a joint operation between ICANN and PT Jembatan Citra Nusantara (CITRANET), an Internet Service Provider in Yogyakarta, who supplied the equipment necessary for the installation of the new L-Root node. CITRANET also provided the colocation in their datacenter and the bandwidth needed for the node's operation.

"We are very pleased to host the L-Root. This is the first root server in Indonesia that is outside the capital, Jakarta. Decentralizing critical Internet infrastructure in Indonesia is one of our missions. We are already hosting one of the .ID servers in our network, in collaboration with Pengelola Nama Domain Indonesia (PANDI), and also several Content Delivery Networks (CDNs). We believe that an L-Root instance will also increase Internet quality in the surrounding area, because part of DNS translation can be done locally and minimize DNS-related delays," said CITRANET Director, Valens Riyadi.

"I am very pleased with our partnership with CITRANET, as well as with the Asosiasi Penyelenggara Jasa Internet Indonesia (APJII), the Indonesia Internet Service Provider Association. We have a very close working relationship with Indonesia's multi-stakeholder Internet Governance community and I am happy to facilitate the deployment of another root server instance into Indonesia," said Kuek Yu-Chuang, ICANN's Vice President and Managing Director for Asia Pacific.

This cooperation signifies an effort between ICANN and CITRANET to enhance the security, stability and resiliency of the DNS for Indonesian Internet users and reduce the response time experienced when making some DNS queries.

"ICANN is pleased to augment the number of L-Root instances in Indonesia so soon after the first L-Root was installed in Jakarta. We appreciate the tremendous effort from CITRANET in hosting the L-Root. Their work speaks volumes to their commitment to both the Domain Name System and the stability and resiliency of the global Internet," said Terry Manderson, Director of DNS Engineering at ICANN.

There are 13 "root" DNS servers, identified by the letters A through M — the "L" root server operated by ICANN being one. Computers typically communicate with each other using numeric addresses, while humans find it easier to use and remember names (for instance, users typically remember the domain name "ICANN.ORG" more easily than the Internet Protocol address, 2620:0:2d0:200::7). The DNS translates domain names into addresses and the root servers provide the pointers to the servers for top-level domains (the last part of domain names, for example, "ORG" in "ICANN.ORG").

Spreading the service that provides these pointers out geographically by duplicating the root servers leads to a more resilient, dispersed system that reduces the risk of users being taken offline by a problem or attack and reduces the time it takes to look up names on the Internet.

The CITRANET hosted L-Root instance is the fourth root server instance in Indonesia, in addition to existing I- and F-root servers.

For more information about L-root, please visit

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Media Contacts


Liana Teo
Head of Communications, Asia Pacific
Tel: +65 6808 6669


Valens Riyadi
Tel: +62-816682500


ICANN's mission is to coordinate and ensure a stable, secure and unified global Internet identifier system. To reach another person on the Internet you have to type an identifier into your computer - a name or a number. That identifier has to be unique so computers know where to find each other. ICANN helps coordinate these unique identifiers across the world. ICANN was formed in 1998. It is a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation that supports and coordinates participants from all over the world dedicated to keeping the Internet secure, stable and interoperable. ICANN promotes competition and develops policy on some of the Internet's unique identifiers. ICANN doesn't control content on the Internet. It cannot stop spam and it doesn't deal with access to the Internet. But through its coordination role of the top level of the Internet's identifier systems, it does have an important impact on the expansion and evolution of the Internet. For more information please visit:


PT Jembatan Citra Nusantara (CITRANET), an Internet service provider since 2001, mainly operates in Yogyakarta area, and south area of Central Java. We offer wireless and fiber to the home services to the customers. For more information, please visit:

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."