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Indonesia's PANDI Contributes to Responsive and Resilient Internet with First L-Root Instance in Indonesia

Establishment of instance helps further decentralize the top level of the DNS, mitigate certain network outages, and reduce DNS-related delays

Jakarta, Indonesia … The first L-Root instance in Indonesia has been successfully installed in Jakarta, increasing the Domain Name System's (DNS) overall fault tolerance and its resilience against certain types of cyber threats, such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.

The launch of the L-Root server node is a joint operation between ICANN and Pengelola Nama Domain Internet Indonesia (PANDI), Indonesia's Country Code Top Level Domain Operator of .id, who supplied the equipment necessary for the installation of the new L-Root node.

"We are very pleased to host the L-Root which is the third root server in Indonesia, in addition to the existing I- and F-Root servers. It is important to improve the reliability, speed and resilience of the Internet in our country," said PANDI Chairman, Andi Budimansyah.

"The successful installation of Indonesia's first L-Root instance is a historical moment made possible with ICANN's collaboration with PANDI, as well as the multi-stakeholder community of Indonesia, including the Indonesian government that has been a close partner of ICANN in the region. This is a testimony of ICANN's commitment to Indonesia and we look forward to bringing in more L-Root instances into the country," said Kuek Yu-Chuang, ICANN Vice President and Managing Director for Asia Pacific.

This cooperation is an effort to enhance the security, stability and resiliency to Indonesian Internet users and reduce the response time experienced when making some DNS queries.

Bambang Heru Tjahjono, Director General of the Indonesia Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (MCIT) said, "The Ministry of Communication & Information Technology highly appreciate any activities related to the ICT programs that improve the reliability of internet and internet governance in Indonesia. One of our main objectives is to strengthen the national DNS. With an L-Root instance in Indonesia, and with closer cooperation with ICANN, Indonesia's Internet governance is expected to be increasingly well-organized and the security, reliability and integrity of the operation of the Internet in Indonesia will significantly improve."

There are 13 "root" DNS servers, identified by the letters A through M — the "L" root server operated by ICANN being one. Computers typically communicate with each other using numeric addresses, while humans find it easier to use and remember names (for instance, users typically remember the domain name "ICANN.ORG" more easily than the Internet Protocol address, 2620:0:2d0:200::7). The DNS translates names into addresses and the root servers provide the pointers to the server for top-level domains (the last part of domain names, for example, "ORG" in "ICANN.ORG").

Spreading this root information out geographically by duplicating the root servers leads to a resilient, dispersed system that reduces the risk of being taken offline by a problem or attack and reduces the time it takes to look up names on the Internet.

For more information about L-root, please visit

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Media Contacts

Liana Teo
Head of Communications, Asia Pacific
Tel: +65 6808 6669

Andi Budimansyah
Tel: +62 81210301122


ICANN's mission is to ensure a stable, secure and unified global Internet. To reach another person on the Internet you have to type an address into your computer - a name or a number. That address has to be unique so computers know where to find each other. ICANN coordinates these unique identifiers across the world. Without that coordination we wouldn't have one global Internet. ICANN was formed in 1998. It is a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation with participants from all over the world dedicated to keeping the Internet secure, stable and interoperable. It promotes competition and develops policy on the Internet's unique identifiers. ICANN doesn't control content on the Internet. It cannot stop spam and it doesn't deal with access to the Internet. But through its coordination role of the Internet's naming system, it does have an important impact on the expansion and evolution of the Internet. For more information please visit:


PANDI is an Indonesia non-profit organization that manages ccTLD.ID formed and managed by the business community, academia and government (multistakeholder) that promote the use of the domain in order to contribute positively to the global Internet in accordance with prevailing regulations in Indonesia.

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."