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Final Report on Three-Character Requirement and Variant Management

Open: 3 December 09
Closed: 8 January 10

Explanation/Background: The IDN-Implementation Working Team was established to study two topics in anticipation of the delegation of Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) into the root zone:

  1. Management of Variant Top-Level Domains (TLDs);
  2. Whether there can be exceptions to the three-character requirement for generic Top-Level Domains (gTLDs).

The Final Report on 3-Character Requirement and Variant Management [PDF, 337K] is being posted for public comment to ensure broad community input on the proposed recommendations. After the public comment period, a set of solutions will be devised for further discussion and consideration in the IDN ccTLD Fast Track Process, the IDN ccTLD PDP, and in the next version of the new gTLD Applicant Guidebook.

Staff member responsible: Kurt Pritz

Announcement | Comments | Summary/analysis of comments

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."