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A

AC — Advisory Committee; or Administrative Contact (of a domain registration)

An Advisory Committee is a formal advisory body made up of representatives from the Internet community to advise ICANN on a particular issue or policy area. Several are mandated by the ICANN Bylaws and others may be created as needed. Advisory committees have no legal authority to act for ICANN, but report their findings and make recommendations to the ICANN Board.

AC-SO — Advisory Committees and Supporting Organizations

ACP — Administrative Challenge Panels

ADR — Alternative Dispute Resolution

AFA — Association des Fournisseurs d'Acces Internet (French Access Providers Association)

AFNIC — Association Franaise pour le Nommage Internet en Coopration

AFRALO — African Regional At-Large Organization

AfriNIC — African NIC

AfriNIC is a Regional Internet Registry (RIR), and is a non-profit membership organization responsible for the administration and registration of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in the Africa region.

AFTLD — African ccTLDs

AGM — Annual General Meeting

AGP — Add Grace Period

AIRA — American Internet Registrants Association

ALAC — At-Large Advisory Committee

ICANN's At-Large Advisory Committee (ALAC) is responsible for considering and providing advice on the activities of the ICANN, as they relate to the interests of individual Internet users (the "At-Large" community). ICANN, as a private sector, non-profit corporation with technical management responsibilities for the Internet's domain name and address system, will rely on the ALAC and its supporting infrastructure to involve and represent in ICANN a broad set of individual user interests. On 31 October 2002, the ICANN Board adopted New Bylaws that establish the ALAC and authorize its supporting At-Large organizations. (Article XI, Section 2(4) of the New Bylaws.) The New Bylaws, which are the result of ICANN's 2002 reform process, went into effect on 15 December 2002. ALAC is to eventually consist of ten members selected by Regional At-Large Organizations, supplemented by five members selected by ICANN's Nominating Committee. To allow the ALAC to begin functioning immediately, the Transition Article of the Interim Bylaws provides for the Board to appoint ten members (two from each of ICANN's five regions) to an Interim ALAC. Underpinning the ALAC will be a network of self-organizing, self-supporting At-Large Structures throughout the world involving individual Internet users at the local or issue level. The At-Large Structures (either existing organizations or newly formed for this purpose) will self-organize into five Regional At-Large Organizations (one in each ICANN region – Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America/Caribbean, and North America). The Regional At-Large Organizations will manage outreach and public involvement and will be the main forum and coordination point in each region for public input to ICANN.

ALS — At-Large Structure

AOC — Affirmation of Commitments

The Affirmation of Commitments contains specific provisions for periodic review of four key ICANN objectives. These reviews provide a mechanism to assess and report on ICANN's progress toward fundamental organizational objectives; they are: 1) Ensuring accountability, transparency and the interests of global Internet users; 2) Preserving security, stability and resiliency of the DNS; 3) Promoting competition, consumer trust and consumer choice; and 4) WHOIS policy.

APNG — Asia Pacific Networking Group

APNIC — Asia-Pacific Network Information Center

APNIC is a Regional Internet Registry (RIR), and is a non-profit membership organization responsible for the administration and registration of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in the Asia-Pacific region, including Japan, Korea, China, and Australia.

APRALO — Asia-Pacific Regional At-Large Organization

APRAM — Association des Practiciens en Droits des Marques et des Modles

ARIN — American Registry for Internet Numbers.

ARIN is a Regional Internet Registry (RIR), and is a non-profit membership organization established for the purpose of the administration and registration of Internet number resources — including Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and Autonomous System Numbers — in Canada, many Caribbean and North Atlantic islands, and the United States. ARIN also develops consensus-based policies and facilitates the advancement of the Internet through information and educational outreach.

ARPA — Advanced Research Projects Agency (See also DARPA)

ASO — Address Supporting Organization

The ASO advises the ICANN Board of Directors on policy issues relating to the allocation and management of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. The ASO selects two Directors for the ICANN Board.

MARQUES — Association of European Brand Owners

NIC — Association Franaise pour le Nommage Internet en Coopration

AS — Autonomous System (“AS”) Numbers

AS numbers are globally unique identifiers for network operators and are used to allow these operators to exchange dynamic routing information. Each autonomous system is a group of Internet connected devices having a single clearly defined routing policy. ICANN coordinates AS numbers as part of the IANA functions.

Advisory Committee — Advisory Committee

An Advisory Committee is a formal advisory body made up of representatives from the Internet community to advise ICANN on a particular issue or policy area. Several are mandated by the ICANN Bylaws and others may be created as needed. Advisory committees have no legal authority to act for ICANN, but report their findings and make recommendations to the ICANN Board.

Advisory Committees — Advisory Committees

An Advisory Committee is a formal advisory body made up of representatives from the Internet community to advise ICANN on a particular issue or policy area. Several are mandated by the ICANN Bylaws and others may be created as needed. Advisory committees have no legal authority to act for ICANN, but report their findings and make recommendations to the ICANN Board.

B

BC — Business Constituency

BIND — Berkeley Internet Name Domain

Bottom-up Processes — Bottom-up Processes

A fundamental principle of ICANN's decision-making processes is that policy analysis and decisions progress from a stakeholder level (made up of directly affected parties, Internet users, companies and anyone else who wishes to participate in the process) to the ICANN Board level. The process provides the opportunity for open and equal participation at all levels, as practical and possible.

BRG — Brand Registry Group

The Brand Registry Group (BRG) is an association of companies who share the goal of empowering Brand gTLDs in the domain name industry. The BRG’s purpose is to support the collective interests of its members and help them derive maximum value from their Brand gTLD. The BRG is an Associate Member of the Registry Stakeholder Group (RySG).

C

ACSO — Combined group of Advisory Committees and Supporting Organizations

APTLD — Council of the Asia Pacific country code Top Level Domains

CABASE — Camara Argentina de Internet - el Comercio Electronico los Contenidos y Servicios On Line

CAIP — Canadian Association of Internet Providers

ccNSO — Country Code Names Supporting Organization

The ccNSO is in the process of being established, with the ccNSO Assistance Group preparing the recommendations that are currently under discussion. Upon completion, the purpose of the ccNSO is to engage and provide leadership in activities relevant to country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs). This is achieved by 1) Developing policy recommendations to the ICANN Board, 2) Nurturing consensus across the ccNSO's community, including the name-related activities of ccTLDs; and 3) Coordinating with other ICANN SO's, Committees, or constituencies under ICANN. The ccNSO selects one person to serve on the board.

CCWT — Communications Coordination Work Team

ccTLD — Country Code Top Level Domain

Two letter domains, such as .uk (United Kingdom), .de (Germany) and .jp (Japan) (for example), are called country code top level domains (ccTLDs) and correspond to a country, territory, or other geographic location. The rules and policies for registering domain names in the ccTLDs vary significantly and ccTLD registries limit use of the ccTLD to citizens of the corresponding country. Some ICANN-accredited registrars provide registration services in the ccTLDs in addition to registering names in .biz, .com, .info, .name, .net and .org, however, ICANN does not specifically accredit registrars to provide ccTLD registration services. For more information regarding registering names in ccTLDs, including a complete database of designated ccTLDs and managers, please refer to http://www.iana.org/cctld/cctld.htm.

CDT — Center for Democracy and Technology

CENTR — Council of European National Top level domain Registries

CIGREF — Club Informatique des Grandes Entreprises Franaises

CNRI — Corporation for National Research Initiatives

CORE-MoU — Council of Registrars Memorandum of Understanding

COT — Constituency Operations Team of the OSC

CPH — Contracted Parties House

CSG — Commercial Stakeholders Group

CZDAP — Centralized Zone Data Access Program

Consensus — Consensus

Consensus is a form of decision-making employed by various supporting organizations within ICANN. The method to establish whether one has reached consensus differs per supporting organization, for example, the following method is used in the GNSO: Full consensus - when no one in the group speaks against the recommendation in its last readings. This is also sometimes referred to as Unanimous Consensus. Consensus - a position where only a small minority disagrees, but most agree. For those that are unfamiliar with ICANN usage, you may associate the definition of “Consensus” with other definitions and terms of art such as rough consensus or near consensus. It should be noted, however, that in the case of a GNSO PDP originated Working Group, all reports, especially Final Reports, must restrict themselves to the term “Consensus” as this may have legal implications

CCT — Competition, Consumer Choice & Consumer Trust

CZDS — Centralized Zone Data Service

The Centralized Zone Data Service (CZDS) provides a centralized access point for interested parties to request access to the Zone Files provided by participatingTLDs. The service is the solution for scaling zone data transfer as hundreds of new gTLDs are added to the Internet. Every new gTLD registry operator is required to provide zone data to approved requesters (e.g. law enforcement agents, IP attorneys, researchers) upon technical delegation of its gTLD. New registry operators are provided with instructions for utilizing the Centralized Zone Data Service once a gTLD Registry Agreement has been executed.

D

DAG — Draft Application Guidebook (for new gTLDs)

DARPA — Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

The United States Department of Defense agency that is responsible for the production of new technologies for use by U.S defense forces. Its main objective is to fund and develop advanced technologies for military purposes in order to maintain the technological superiority of the country.

DNS — Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users to find their way around the Internet. Every computer on the Internet has a unique address – just like a telephone number – which is a rather complicated string of numbers. It is called its "IP address" (IP stands for "Internet Protocol"). IP Addresses are hard to remember. The DNS makes using the Internet easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the "domain name") to be used instead of the arcane IP address. So instead of typing 207.151.159.3, you can type www.internic.net. It is a "mnemonic" device that makes addresses easier to remember.

DNSO — Domain Name Supporting Organisation

DNSP — DNS Stability Panel

DNSSEC — DNS Security Extensions

A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.

DOC — Department of Commerce (USA)

DOI — Disclosure of Interest

Domain Name — Domain Name

A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "208.77.188.103", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity.

DSSA — DNS Security and Stability Analysis

DT — Drafting Team

KENIC — Domain Registry in Kenya

TzNIC — Domain Registry in Tanzania

Domain Name Resolvers — Domain Name Resolvers

Scattered across the Internet are thousands of computers – called "Domain Name Resolvers" or just plain "resolvers" – that routinely cache the information they receive from queries to the root servers. These resolvers are located strategically with Internet Service Providers (ISPs) or institutional networks. They are used to respond to a user's request to resolve a domain name – that is, to find the corresponding IP address.

DRP — Dispute Resolution Procedures

Settling domain related disputes (without litigation) through ICANN community developed dispute resolution procedures.

E

EBERO — Emergency Back-End Registry Operator

EC — Empowered Community

ECTA — European Communities Trade Mark Association

ETNO — European Public Telecommunications Network Operators Association

ETSI — European Telecommunications Standards Institute

EURALO — European Regional At-Large Oganization

EuroInternet — European Internet Business Association

EuroISPA — European Internet Services Provider Associations

ERSR — Expedited Registry Security Request

The Expedited Registry Security Request (ERSR) has been developed to provide a process for gTLD registries who inform the ICANN organization of a present or imminent security incident (hereinafter referred to as "Incident") to its TLD and/or the DNS to request a contractual waiver for actions it might take or has taken to mitigate or eliminate an Incident. A contractual waiver is an exemption from compliance with a specific provision of the Registry Agreement for the time period necessary to respond to the Incident. The ERSR has been designed to allow operational security to be maintained around an Incident while keeping relevant parties (e.g., ICANN organization, other affected providers, etc.) informed as appropriate.

F

eCOMLAC — Federacion Latinoamericana y del Caribe para Internet y el Comercio Electronico

ENRED — Foro Latinoamericano de Redes

FCC — Federal Communications Commission (USA)

An independent government agency of the United States established under the Communications Act of 1934. The FCC has been given the responsibility to monitor the interstate and international communications which include television radio, satellite, wire and cable. The jurisdiction of the FCC includes all 50 states, including the District of Columbia, as well as areas under US possession.

Five-Year Operating Plan — Five-Year Operating Plan

Five Year Operating Plan is a means of planning and executing portfolios of ICANN work in alignment to the strategic objectives and goals articulated in the Strategic Plan. This plan serves as a link between strategy and the one year operating plan and budget, setting out planned outcomes (key success factors), means of measuring progress (key performance indicators), operational risks, dependencies and resources needed to accomplish goals

G

DeNIC — German Domain Registry

GA — General Assembly Mailing List

GAC — Governmental Advisory Committee

The GAC is an advisory committee comprising appointed representatives of national governments, multi-national governmental organizations and treaty organizations, and distinct economies. Its function is to advise the ICANN Board on matters of concern to governments. The GAC will operate as a forum for the discussion of government interests and concerns, including consumer interests. As an advisory committee, the GAC has no legal authority to act for ICANN, but will report its findings and recommendations to the ICANN Board. For further information about the GAC see the GAC website.

GNSO — Generic Names Supporting Organization

The GNSO is the successor to the responsibilities of the Domain Name Supporting Organization (DNSO; see below) that relate to the generic top-level domains. The GNSO is the body of six constituencies, as follows: the Commercial and Business constituency, the gTLD Registry constituency, the ISP constituency, the non-commercial constituency, the registrar's constituency, and the IP constituency. Most TLDs with three or more characters are referred to as "generic" TLDs, or "gTLDs". They can be subdivided into two types, "sponsored" TLDs (sTLDs) and "unsponsored TLDs (uTLDs), as described in more detail below. In the 1980s, seven gTLDs (.com, .edu, .gov, .int, .mil, .net, and .org) were created. Domain names may be registered in three of these (.com, .net, and .org) without restriction; the other four have limited purposes. Over the next twelve years, various discussions occurred concerning additional gTLDs, leading to the selection in November 2000 of seven new TLDs for introduction. These were introduced in 2001 and 2002. Four of the new TLDs (.biz, .info, .name, and .pro) are unsponsored. The other three new TLDs (.aero, .coop, and .museum) are sponsored. Generally speaking, an unsponsored TLD operates under policies established by the global Internet community directly through the ICANN process, while a sponsored TLD is a specialized TLD that has a sponsor representing the narrower community that is most affected by the TLD. The sponsor thus carries out delegated policy-formulation responsibilities over many matters concerning the TLD. A Sponsor is an organization to which is delegated some defined ongoing policy-formulation authority regarding the manner in which a particular sponsored TLD is operated. The sponsored TLD has a Charter, which defines the purpose for which the sponsored TLD has been created and will be operated. The Sponsor is responsible for developing policies on the delegated topics so that the TLD is operated for the benefit of a defined group of stakeholders, known as the Sponsored TLD Community, that are most directly interested in the operation of the TLD. The Sponsor also is responsible for selecting the registry operator and to varying degrees for establishing the roles played by registrars and their relationship with the registry operator. The Sponsor must exercise its delegated authority according to fairness standards and in a manner that is representative of the Sponsored TLD Community.

gTLD — generic Top Level Domain

A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally). For policy reasons, these are usually subdivided into sponsored top-level domains and unsponsored top-level domains.

gTLD-MoU — Generic Top Level Domain Memorandum of Understanding

A document prepared by the Internet Ad Hoc Committee (IAHC) containing proposals to resolve the problems associated with the Domain Name System (DNS) domain name allocations. The gTLD-MoU proposed the creation of new gTLDs and to transfer the management of the DNS from the U.S. government to a self-regulatory organization composed of members of both the public and private sectors, with online alternative dispute resolution being administered by WIPO and others. The document was introduced to the Internet community on February 28, 1997.

IOPS.ORG — Group of commercial Internet Service Providers

iPOC — gTLD-MoU Interim Policy Oversight Committee

I

IAB — Internet Architecture Board

IAHC — International Ad Hoc Committee

IANA — Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

ICANN has performed the IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) Functions on behalf of the global Internet community since 1998. The IANA functions have historically included: the maintenance of the registry of technical Internet protocol parameters; the administration of certain responsibilities associated with Internet DNS root zone and the allocation of Internet numbering resources.

ICANN — Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is an internationally organized, non-profit corporation that has responsibility for Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, and root server system management functions. Originally, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and other entities performed these services under U.S. Government contract. ICANN now performs the IANA function. As a private-public partnership, ICANN is dedicated to preserving the operational stability of the Internet; to promoting competition; to achieving broad representation of global Internet communities; and to developing policy appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes. The DNS translates the domain name you type into the corresponding IP address, and connects you to your desired website. The DNS also enables email to function properly, so the email you send will reach the intended recipient.

ICC — International Chamber of Commerce

IDNC — Internationalized Domain Name

IDNs — Internationalized Domain Names

IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet "a-z". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European "0-9". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed "ASCII characters" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of "Unicode characters" that provides the basis for IDNs. The "hostname rule" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen "-". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of "labels" (separated by "dots"). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an "A-label". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a "U-label". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for "test" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of "ASCII compatible encoding" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn — 11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an "LDH label". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"icann.org" is not an IDN.

IESG — Internet Engineering Steering Group

IETF — Internet Engineering Task Force

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet . It is open to any interested individual. The IETF develops Internet Standards and in particular the standards related to the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP).

IGF — Internet Governance Forum

The IGF was established in 2006 in order to provide the necessary support for the United Nations Secretary General in conducting the mandate from the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). The IGF serves as a platform wherein stakeholders from industry, government and civil society can discuss issues related to Internet governance.

IGO — Intergovernmental Organization

INTA — International Trademark Association

IP — Internet Protocol or Intellectual Property

The communications protocol underlying the Internet, IP allows networks of devices to communicate over a variety of physical links. Each device or service on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from other devices or services on the Internet. An IP address is the numerical address and DNS naming uses user-friendly names to locate the devices and services.

Intellectual Property is a work or invention that is the result of creativity, such as a manuscript or a design, to which one has rights and for which one may apply for a patent, copyright, trademark, etc.

IPC — Intellectual Property Constituency

IPT — Implementation Planning Team

IRT — Implementation Recommendation Team (of new gTLDs)

IRTP — Inter-Registrar Transfer Policy

ISO — International Organization for Standardization

International Organization for Standardisation. An international organization comprised mostly of national standardization agencies.

ISOC — Internet Society

The Internet Society is the international organization for global cooperation and coordination for the Internet and its internetworking technologies and applications. ISOC membership is open to any interested person.

ISP — Internet Service Provider

An ISP is a company, which provides access to the Internet to organizations and/or individuals. Access services provided by ISPs may include web hosting, email, VoIP (voice over IP), and support for many other applications.

ISPA-uk — Internet Services Providers Association of the UK

ISPC — Internet Service Provider Constituency

ITAA — Information Technology Association of America

ITU — International Telecommunication Union

ICG — IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group

The IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group (ICG) was formed to coordinate the development of a proposal among the communities affected by the IANA functions. The creation of the ICG was initiated and facilitated by ICANN, and the membership of the ICG has been defined by the Internet communities participating in it. The group’s sole deliverable is a proposal to the NTIA recommending a transition plan of NTIA’s stewardship of IANA functions to the Internet community, consistent with the key principles outlined in the NTIA March 14 announcement.

Identifier Ecosystem — Identifier Ecosystem

The term “ecosystem” describes the natural world around us. It can be defined as the network of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment. The Internet is an ecosystem, and it is a network of organizations and communities that work together and in their roles. The Internet Ecosystem is made up of a number of organizations and processes that shape the coordination and management of the global Internet and enable its overall functioning. These organizations include: technology and engineering organizations, network operators, resource management organizations, users, civil society, commercial and non-commercial entities, educators, policy-makers, law enforcement and governments.

Identifier Registration Data/Services — Identifier Registration Data/Services

This is a service offered by registries and registrars to provide public access to registration and contact data on domain name registrations.  This information is often referred to as “WHOIS data.”  For more information see http://whois.icann.org/en/about-whois

Internet Governance Ecosystem — Internet Governance Ecosystem

An interconnected system characterized by a web of relationships among the many institutions, organizations and communities that have roles affecting the operation and use of the Internet. These relationships reflect and recognize responsibilities, roles and dependencies among the various players.

iPv4/6 — iPv4/6

There are two versions of Internet Protocol in popular use: version 4 (IPv4) and version 6 (IPv6). • IPv4 was developed in the early 1980s. It has capacity of just over four billion IP addresses, almost all of which have now been allocated to Internet service providers and users. An IPv4 address looks like this: 192.0.2.53. • IPv6 is the next generation of IP, with a 128-bit address space, providing 340 undecillion addresses. An IPv6 address looks like this: 2001:0db8::53. While the intention is for IPv6 to surpass IPv4 as the commonly used system, this process is ongoing. Adoption is important because IPv4 and IPv6 essentially operate as parallel systems, meaning data cannot be exchanged between these protocols without transition technologies.

J

JIG — Joint ccNSO/GNSO Internationalized Domain Name Working Group

JPA — Joint Project Agreement

L

LACNIC — Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry

LACNIC is a Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for Latin America and the Caribbean.

LACRALO — Latin America/Caribbean At-Large Organization

LACTLD — Latin American and Caribbean ccTLDs

LGR — Label Generation Rules

LRP — Limited Registration Period

A Limited Registration Period is any registration period between the end of the Sunrise Period and the start of General Registration. An LRP by definition is a registration period in which the registry operator has imposed additional registration restrictions beyond the registration policies for the TLD’s general registration, thus an LRP cannot occur at the same time as the Claims Period / General Registration. Any registration during an LRP must be subject to the Claims Services in the same manner as registrations registered or allocated during the Trademark Claims Period.

M

MoU — Memorandum of Understanding

MPAA — Motion Picture Association of America

Multistakeholder Approach — Multistakeholder Approach

The Multistakeholder Approach is an organizational framework or structure for governance and policymaking which aims to bring together all stakeholders to collaborate and participate in the dialogue, decision-making and implementation of solutions to identified problems or goals. The Multi-stakeholder Model at ICANN, is comprised of a diverse set of stakeholders with an interest in Internet numbering, naming and protocols from around the world who have organized into various Supporting Organizations, Constituencies and Advisory Committees, and agree to operate in an open, bottom-up, consensus-driven, and transparent manner.

MSA — Material Subcontracting Agreement

A Material Subcontracting Arrangement is defined as any subcontracting arrangement that relates to any Critical Function (as identified in Specification 10, Section 6 of the new gTLD registry agreement) for the TLD. A change to a Material Subcontracting Arrangement refers to a change to any back-end registry operator (also known as a back-end service provider or a Registry Service Provider), which is defined by the Registry Transition Process as an organization contracted by a registry operator to run one or more of the Critical Functions of a gTLD registry and includes service providers such as DNS providers.

N

NANC — North American Numbering Council

NANP — North American Numbering Plan

NARALO — North American Regional At-Large Organization

NCPH — Non-Contracted Parties House

NCSG — Non-Commercial Stakeholders Group

An integrated committee of the Non-Contracted Parties House under ICANN’s Generic Name Supporting Organization (GNSO). The main purpose of the NCSG is to represent the views and interests of those who engage in non-commercial activities on the Internet. It was created after ICANN had found that there was not adequate representation of non-commercial and non-profit organizations within ICANN processes.[1] The provisional charter of the NCSG was adopted by the ICANN Board on July 30, 2009.

NCUC — Non-Commercial Users Constituency

A member of the Non-Commercial Stakeholder Group (NCSG) of ICANN's Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) constituted by Article XX, Section of ICANN's Bylaws. Its main objective is to represent the interests and positions of individuals and the civil society involved in non-commercial Internet activities such as education, promotion of arts, religion, children's welfare, scientific research and others using internet as a global communication method.

NGO — Nongovernmental Organization

NIC — Network Information Center

NOIF — Notice of Intent to Form [a new constituency]

NSF — National Science Foundation (USA)

NSI — Network Solutions Inc.

NRO — Number Resource Organization

The Number Resource Organization (NRO) is a coordinating body for the five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) that manage the distribution of Internet number resources including IP addresses and Autonomous System Numbers. Each RIR consists of the Internet community in its region.

NETmundial Principles — NETmundial Principles

The NETmundial meeting, which took place in Sao Paolo, Brazil on 23-24 April 2014, was the first multistakeholder-designed event to focus on the future of Internet governance. NETmundial identified a set of common principles and important values that contribute to an inclusive, multistakeholder, effective, legitimate, and evolving Internet governance framework, and recognized that the Internet is a global resource which should be managed in the public interest.

O

OECD — Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

OSC — Operations Steering Committee

The Operations Steering Committee (OSC) coordinates, recommends and reviews changes to certain operational activities of the GNSO and its constituencies with a view to efficient outcomes. These operational activity areas cover GNSO operations, Stakeholder Group and Constituency operations, and communications with GNSO and between GNSO and other ICANN structures.

P

PAB — Policy Advisory Body (gTLD-MoU)

The PAB represents the voices of Internet stakeholders in the arena of the global Internet domain name system (DNS), as per the limitations set under the gTLD-MoU. For this, the PAB actively debates, solicits and tries to reach consensual positions wherever and whenever possible and voices its opinion in the form of recommendations about how the global Internet domain system should be administered. The main mission of the PAB is to work as a channel to involve those organizations and groups in the gTLD-MoU process, which are not represented in the framework of the PAB.

PDEPDP — Post Domain Expiration Policy Development Process

PDP — Policy Development Process

A set of formal steps, as defined in the ICANN bylaws, to guide the initiation, internal and external review, timing and approval of policies needed to coordinate the global Internet's system of unique identifiers.

PDP-WT — Policy Development Process Work Team

PEDNR — Post-Expiration Domain Name Recovery

Phishing — Phishing

Phishing attacks use both social engineering and technical subterfuge to steal consumers' personal identity data and financial account credentials. Social engineering schemes use spoofed emails to lead consumers to counterfeit websites designed to trick recipients into divulging financial data such as credit card numbers, account usernames, passwords and social security numbers. Hijacking brand names of banks, e-retailers and credit card companies, phishers often convince recipients to respond. Technical subterfuge schemes plant crimeware onto PCs to steal credentials directly, often using Trojan keylogger spyware. Pharming crimeware misdirects users to fraudulent sites or proxy servers, typically through DNS hijacking or poisoning.

POC — Policy Oversight Committee (gTLD-MoU)

PPSC — Policy Process Steering Committee

The Policy Process Steering Committee (PPSC) reviews and recommends processes used within the GNSOfor developing policy, including the use of Working Groups, and recommending any changes.

Protocol — Protocol

Any form of inter-computer communication that has been standardized to ensure computers can communicate to one another. Internet protocols are usually standardized in RFCs.

Protocol Parameter — Protocol Parameter

Protocol parameters are internal identifiers that ensure computers can talk to and understand each other. With regard to the IANA functions done by ICANN, the protocol parameters management function involves maintaining many of the codes and numbers used in Internet protocols. This is done in coordination with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

PDDRP — Post-Delegation Dispute Resolution Procedure

The Trademark Post-Delegation Dispute Resolution Procedure (PDDRP) is intended to cover Trademark post-delegation dispute resolution proceedings generally, and addresses a registry operator's complicity in trademark infringement on the first or second level of a new gTLD.

PICDRP — Public Interest Commitment Dispute Resolution Procedure

The Public Interest Commitment Dispute Resolution Procedure (PICDRP) addresses complaints that a registry operator may not be complying with the Public Interest Commitment(s) in Specification 11 of its Registry Agreement.

Q

QLP — Qualified Launch Program

The Qualified Launch Program is intended to provide a mechanism for registry operators to register a limited number of names to third parties to promote their TLDs prior to the Sunrise Period.

R

Ra — Registrar

An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support. See also domain name registrar.

Ry — Registry

The "Registry" is the authoritative, master database of all domain names registered in each Top Level Domain. The registry operator keeps the master database and also generates the "zone file" which allows computers to route Internet traffic to and from top-level domains anywhere in the world. Internet users don't interact directly with the registry operator; users can register names in TLDs including .biz, .com, .info, .net, .name, .org by using an ICANN-Accredited Registrar.

RAA — Registrar Accreditation Agreement

The Registrar Accreditation Agreement (RAA) is the contract that governs the relationship between ICANN and its accredited registrars.

RAP — Registration Abuse Policy

RC — Registars' Constituency

Registrant — Registrant

The entity that has acquired the right to use an Internet resource. Usually this is via some form of revocable grant given by a registrar to list their registration in a registry.

RA — Registrar

Domain names ending with .aero, .biz, .com, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, .net, .org, and .pro can be registered through many different companies (known as "registrars") that compete with one another. A listing of these companies appears in the Accredited Registrar Directory. The registrar you choose will ask you to provide various contact and technical information that makes up the registration. The registrar will then keep records of the contact information and submit the technical information to a central directory known as the "registry." This registry provides other computers on the Internet the information necessary to send you e-mail or to find your web site. You will also be required to enter a registration contract with the registrar, which sets forth the terms under which your registration is accepted and will be maintained.

RFC — Request for Comments

RGP — Redemption Grace Period

Problems and complaints relating to deletion of domain-name registrations are very common. Businesses and consumers are losing the rights to their domain names through registration deletions caused by mistake, inadvertence, or fraud. Current procedures for correcting these mistakes have proven inadequate. To move toward a solution to these problems ICANN developed the RGP. How it works: Now, the "delete" of a domain name (whether inside or outside of any applicable grace period) will result in a 30-day Deleted Name Redemption Grace Period. This grace period will allow the domain name registrant, registrar, and/or registry time to detect and correct any mistaken deletions. During this 30-day period, the deleted name will be placed on REGISTRY-HOLD, which will cause the name to be removed from the zone. (The domain name will not function/resolve.) This feature will help ensure notice to the registrant that the name is subject to deletion at the end of the RGP, even if the contact data the registrar has for the registrant is no longer accurate. During the Redemption Grace Period, registrants can redeem their registrations through registrars. Registrars would redeem the name in the registry for the original registrant by paying renewal fees, plus a service charge, to the registry operator. Any party requesting redemption would be required to prove its identity as the original registrant of the name. After the 30-day period when the domain name can be redeemed, there is a 5-day period when the domain essentially is pending deletion. This timeframe is implemented to facilitate notice to all registrars before a domain is finally deleted.

RIPE — Rseaux IP Europens

RIPE is an open and voluntary organization, which consists of European Internet service providers. The RIPE NCC acts as the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for Europe and surrounding areas, performs coordination activities for the organizations participating in RIPE, and allocates blocks of IP address space to its Local Internet Registries (LIRs), which then assign the addresses to end-users.

RIR — Regional Internet Registry

There are currently five RIRs: AfriNIC, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC and RIPE NCC. These non-profit organizations are responsible for distributing and managing IP addresses on a regional level to Internet service providers and local registries.

RISP — Registry Infrastructure Service Provider

RPM — Rights Protection Mechanism

Root Servers — Root Servers

The root servers contain the IP addresses of all the TLD registries – both the global registries such as .com, .org, etc. and the 244 country-specific registries such as .fr (France), .cn (China), etc. This is critical information. If the information is not 100% correct or if it is ambiguous, it might not be possible to locate a key registry on the Internet. In DNS parlance, the information must be unique and authentic.

Root Zone — Root Zone

The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.

RrSG — Registrars Stakeholder Group

RSEP — Registry Services Evaluation Policy

The Registry Services Evaluation Process (RSEP) is ICANN's process for evaluating proposed gTLD registry services or contractual modifications for security, stability or competition issues. Further information on RSEP is available at http://www.icann.org/en/resources/registries/rsep/archive.

RSTEP — Registry Services Technical Evaluation Panel

Ry — Registry

RyC — Registry Constituency

RySG — Registries Stakeholder Group

RSSAC — Root Server System Advisory Committee

The Root Server System Advisory Committee (RSSAC) is responsible for advising the ICANN community and Board on matters relating to the operation, administration, security, and integrity of the Internet's Root Server System, as outlined in its charter from the ICANN Bylaws.

REA — Regional Engagement Activities

ICANN's Global Stakeholder Engagement team interacts with stakeholders on a regional basis, in support of the regional engagement strategies, by participating in events or contributing to greater education, awareness and understanding for stakeholders in ICANN processes. These activities may take many forms, such as conferences or workshops, specialized trainings or meetings.

Review Mechanisms — Review Mechanisms

A review mechanism is a process to assess how a decision or policy is being put in place. ICANN has a series of review mechanisms mandated in its Bylaws to ensure its accountability and transparency.

Routing System — Routing System

Despite the diverse nature of the Internet, network operators need to exchange information with one another to provide the technical routing information that steers Internet connections in an optimal way. This system is based on the use of Internet Protocol addresses and Autonomous System numbers.

Regional Engagement Activities — Regional Engagement Activities

ICANN's Global Stakeholder Engagement team interacts with stakeholders on a regional basis, in support of the regional engagement strategies, by participating in events or contributing to greater education, awareness and understanding for stakeholders in ICANN processes. These activities may take many forms, such as conferences or workshops, specialized trainings or meetings.

RRDRP — Registration Restrictions Dispute Resolution Procedure

The Registration Restrictions Dispute Resolution Procedure (RRDRP) is intended to address circumstances in which a community-based new gTLD registry operator deviates from the registration restrictions outlined in its Registry Agreement.

RRA — Registry-Registry Agreement

The Registry-Registrar Agreement (RRA) is a contract between a registry operator and ICANN-accredited registrars that defines the terms by which a registrar will provide Internet domain name registration services for a given TLD.

RTP — Registry Transition Processes

A change in the contracting party of a Registry Agreement with the ICANN organization. Examples of circumstances leading to a Registry Transition are: name change of the registry operator, a sale or transfer of the registry operator or the registry agreement, termination of the registry agreement and transfer to another party, etc.

RRI — Registration Reporting Interfaces

The Registration Reporting Interfaces (RRI) system is a set of interfaces provided by ICANN to contracted parties including registry operators and Data Escrow Agents to fulfill and monitor their applicable reporting requirements.

RRS — Registry Request Service

The online tool for submission of requests for approval of new registry services to the ICANN organization.

RST — Registry System Testing

Registry System Testing (RST) ensures that a registry operator has the capacity to operate a new gTLD in a stable and secure manner, by testing critical registry functions as described in the registry agreement. Testing requirements vary depending on the services a registry operator supports.

S

FOA — Standardized Form of Authorization (for domain name transfer)

SARP — Support Applicant Review Panel

SG — Stakeholder Group

SIC — Structural Improvement Committee

SLD — Second-level domain of the DNS

SO — Supporting Organization

The SOs are the three specialized advisory bodies that will advise the ICANN Board of Directors on issues relating to domain names (GNSO and CCNSO) and, IP addresses (ASO).

SOI — Statement of Interest

SRS — Shared Registratry System

SSAC — Security and Stability Advisory Committee

The Security and Stability Advisory Committee advises the ICANN community and Board on matters relating to the security and integrity of the Internet's naming and address allocation systems. For information on SSAC members and publications, please visit ssac.icann.org.

STI — Specific Trademark Issues

STI-DT — Specific Trademark Issues Drafting Team

Stakeholders — Stakeholders

A stakeholder has been defined as any individual or group affected by the actions of the organization. Stakeholders at ICANN include Country Code top level domain name registries; generic top-level domain registries and registrars; regional internet registries who manage the regional distribution of Internet number resources including IP address and Autonomous System Numbers; the thirteen root name server operators; commercial interests - including those representing large and small businesses, intellectual property interests and providers of internet and other communications services; noncommercial interests – including noncommercial users and not-for-profit organizations; governmental interests – including national governments, multi-national governmental organizations and treaty organizations, and distinct economies; technical experts from industry and academia; and representatives of Internet users worldwide.

Strategy Panels — Strategy Panels

The ICANN Strategy Panels convened subject matter experts, thought leaders and industry practitioners to support development of ICANN's strategic and operational plans. Starting in September 2013, there were four Strategy Panels focusing on identifier technology innovation; ICANN's role in the Internet organizations' ecosystem; multistakeholder innovation; and the public responsibility framework. The Strategy Panels completed their work in May 2014.

Stability — Security, Stability and Resiliency

In ICANN’s Security, Stability and Resiliency Framework, “stability” means the capacity to ensure that the system operates as expected, and that users of the unique identifiers have confidence that the system operates as expected.

Resiliency — Security Stability & Resiliency (SSR)

In ICANN’s Security, Stability and Resiliency Framework, “resiliency” means the capacity of the unique identifier system to effectively withstand/tolerate/survive malicious attacks and other disruptive events without disruption or cessation of service.

Security — Security – Security, Stability and Resiliency (SSR)

In ICANN’s Security, Stability and Resiliency Framework, “security” means the capacity to protect and prevent misuse of Internet unique identifiers.

Supporting Organization — Supporting Organization

ICANN has three Supporting Organizations that develop and recommend policies concerning the Internet’s technical management within their areas of expertise. They are the Address Supporting Organization (ASO), the Country Code Names Supporting Organization (ccNSO) and the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO).

Supporting Organizations — Supporting Organizations

ICANN has three Supporting Organizations that develop and recommend policies concerning the Internet’s technical management within their areas of expertise. They are the Address Supporting Organization (ASO), the Country Code Names Supporting Organization (ccNSO) and the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO).

T

TCP/IP — Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TDRP — Transfer Dispute Resolution Policy

TEAC — Transfer Emergency Action Contact

TIX — Tanzania Internet Exchange (www.tix.or.tz)

TLD — Top Level Domain

TLDs are the names at the top of the DNS naming hierarchy. They appear in domain names as the string of letters following the last (rightmost) ".", such as "net" in "www.example.net". The administrator for a TLD controls what second-level names are recognized in that TLD. The administrators of the "root domain" or "root zone" control what TLDs are recognized by the DNS. Commonly used TLDs include .com, .net, .edu, .jp, .de, etc.

TMCH — Trademark Clearinghouse

U

NTIA — US National Telecommunications and Information Agency

The U.S. Department of Commerce National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is the Executive Branch agency that is principally responsible for advising the President on telecommunications and information policy issues. NTIA maintains a contract with ICANN for the technical coordination of the Internet’s domain name and addressing system.

UDRP — Uniform Domain-Name Dispute Resolution Policy

All ICANN-accredited registrars follow a uniform dispute resolution policy. Under that policy, disputes over entitlement to a domain-name registration are ordinarily resolved by court litigation between the parties claiming rights to the registration. Once the courts rule who is entitled to the registration, the registrar will implement that ruling. In disputes arising from registrations allegedly made abusively (such as "cybersquatting" and cyberpiracy"), the uniform policy provides an expedited administrative procedure to allow the dispute to be resolved without the cost and delays often encountered in court litigation. In these cases, you can invoke the administrative procedure by filing a complaint with one of the dispute-resolution service providers.For more details on the UDRP, see the ICANN UDRP page and the FAQs.

URL — Uniform Resource Locator

USPTO — United States Patent and Trademark Office

Unique Identifiers — Unique Identifiers

ICANN and its community coordinate and collaborate on the systems of unique identifiers used on the Internet. There are various types of unique identifiers, with commonly known types including domain names, Internet protocol addresses, autonomous system numbers and port numbers. ICANN seeks to facilitate the security, stability and resiliency of these unique identifiers to enable the proper functioning of the Internet.

Unique Identifier Health — Unique Identifier Health

In ICANN’s Security, Stability and Resiliency Framework, “unique identifier health” means a state of general functioning of the Internet’s unique identifiers that is within nominal technical bounds in the dimensions of coherency, integrity, speed, availability, vulnerability and resiliency.

URS — Uniform Rapid Suspension

The Uniform Rapid Suspension System (URS) is a rights protection mechanism that complements the existing Uniform Domain-Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) by offering a lower-cost, faster path to relief for rights holders experiencing the most clear-cut cases of infringement.

W

W3C — World Wide Web Consortium

The W3C is an international industry consortium founded in October 1994 to develop common protocols that promote the evolution of the World Wide Web and ensure its interoperability. Services provided by the Consortium include: a repository of information about the World Wide Web for developers and users; reference code implementations to embody and promote standards; and various prototype and sample applications to demonstrate use of new technology.

WG — Working Group

WGIG — Working Group on Internet Governance

WHOIS — WHOIS (pronounced "who is"; not an acronym)

WHOIS (pronounced "who is"; not an acronym) An Internet protocol that is used to query databases to obtain information about the registration of a domain name (or IP address). The WHOIS protocol was originally specified in RFC 954, published in 1985. The current specification is documented in RFC 3912. ICANN'sgTLD agreements require registries and registrars to offer an interactive web page and a port 43 WHOISservice providing free public access to data on registered names. Such data is commonly referred to as "WHOIS data," and includes elements such as the domain registration creation and expiration dates, nameservers, and contact information for the registrant and designated administrative and technical contacts.WHOIS services are typically used to identify domain holders for business purposes and to identify parties who are able to correct technical problems associated with the registered domain.

WIPO — World Intellectual Property Organization

WIPO is an intergovernmental organization based in Geneva, Switzerland responsible for the promotion of the protection of intellectual rights throughout the world. It is one of the 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations system of organizations.

WLS — Waiting List Service

WSIS — World Summit on the Information Society

WT — Work Team

WTO — World Trade Organization

WWTLD — World-wide Alliance of Top Level Domains

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."