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  • Update on ICANN Public Meeting Innovation

    At a special meeting of the ICANN Board on Thursday 14 January, the Board decided that ICANN70 will be the fourth Public Meeting to be held virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior to Thursday’s Board meeting, ICANN org staff presented the Board with an initial...
  • Welcome 2021 from the ICANN Asia Pacific Office

    Happy New Year! As we look ahead into the new year, I would like to take the opportunity to say that I am proud to be part of the Internet community, working with you through what has been a most challenging 2020. As we are not out of the woods yet with regard to the...
  • An Update on ICANN's GDPR-Related Efforts

    With the year coming to an end, I would like to take a moment to provide an overview of ICANN's efforts regarding the European Union's (EU) General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and what to expect in 2021. EPDP Phase 2 Recommendations As I wrote in October, the...
  • Board Consideration of the Auction Proceeds Report

    The Cross-Community Working Group on New gTLD Auction Proceeds (CCWG-AP), formed in January 2017, was tasked with developing a proposal on the mechanism to allocate the proceeds generated from auctions of last resort used to resolve string contention in the New gTLD...
  • Board Keeps ICANN Strategic Plan in Force and Unchanged

    Designed to shape ICANN's priorities, the Five-Year Strategic Plan establishes a vision and a set of objectives and goals in service of ICANN's mission. Every year, new trends or shifts in existing trends have the potential to impact our plans. The pandemic has...
  • ICANN Board Approves the Risk Appetite Statement

    I am pleased to announce that the ICANN Board has approved ICANN organization's first Risk Appetite Statement. The Risk Appetite Statement articulates the level of risk that the org is willing to take and retain in order to fulfill its mission. The Board also approved...
  • Saying Farewell to 2020

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    To say that 2020 has been an extraordinary year would be an understatement. As a global community, we have experienced unprecedented challenges that have and will continue to impact our daily lives. As this year comes to an end, what stands out is how the ICANN community...
  • Engaging A Community in Lockdown: GSE Africa 2020 Engagement Roundup

    The year 2020 started like any other year with normal face-to-face activities. First on our calendar was Praia (Cabo Verde) followed by Bujumbura (Burundi). This quickly changed dramatically with the onset of COVID-19. Like the rest of the global community, many of our...
  • Chair’s Blog: Key Takeaways from the 2020 Board Self-Evaluation

    As part of our commitment to continuous improvement, the ICANN Board of Directors conducts a self-evaluation every two years to assess our effectiveness and ability to work together in support of ICANN's mission. Through the evaluation, we identify areas of strength,...
  • Board Activity on the Third Accountability and Transparency Review

    ICANN's Bylaws-mandated reviews are an important accountability mechanism that enable us to maintain a healthy multistakeholder model. The Accountability and Transparency Review is one of four Specific Reviews anchored in the ICANN Bylaws. It is a thorough examination of...
  • Improving Our Public Meetings: Timelines and Milestones

    In an October 2020 blog post, ICANN President and CEO Göran Marby outlined the steps that the ICANN Board and the organization (org) are taking, at the community’s request, to help facilitate a dialogue on improving our support for ICANN Public Meetings. Through this...
  • New Resources Available to Domain Name Holders (Registrants)

    This week, the ICANN organization's Registrant Program published Volume 4 of the ongoing 'Issues and Challenges Impacting Domain Name Registrants' report series, which contains updated data collected by the ICANN org's Global Support Center (GSC) and Contractual...
  • Chair’s Blog: ICANN69 Virtual Annual General Meeting

    Last month, the ICANN community convened its Annual General Meeting (AGM), which was also our third virtual ICANN Public Meeting. We continue to make the best of the circumstances, and I want to thank you for joining and working together constructively and effectively...
  • With Sympathies: Marilyn Cade

    On behalf of ICANN, it is with great sadness that I offer condolences on the passing of Marilyn Cade. Marilyn was a long-time member of the ICANN community and a strong and constant advocate for our work. Through more than 20 years of involvement in ICANN, she was active...
  • What ITHI Can Tell Us About Resolver Concentration

    In July 2020, we published a blog in which we presented one of ICANN's research initiatives – the Identifier Technology Health Indicators (ITHI) – describing why it is important for the Internet ecosystem and why we are keen to welcome more participants and to collect...
  • ICANN at the 15th Internet Governance Forum

    The Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), which will be held virtually due to COVID-19, officially opens on 9 November and closes on 17 November. Pre-events and other working sessions will be held from 2 to 6 November. Members of the ICANN...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."