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  • APIGA: From Digital Native to Digital Citizen

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    “As young people, we shouldn’t see being young as a disadvantage, but as a strength because we are digital natives and can offer something fresh to the Internet community.” - Jianne Soriano, Internet Governance Forum Multistakeholder Advisory Group Member In its third...
  • Routine Annual Disaster Recovery Process Is Better Than Ever

    As part of our annual disaster recovery protocol, this year we performed a live transition of our entire catalog of public web services - from our primary data center to our alternate data center. This test included www.icann.org, www.iana.org, whois.icann.org,...
  • Update on ICANN's Strategic Planning Process

    The future of ICANN depends on our ability to work together to anticipate new challenges and opportunities ahead. The strategic outlook and strategic planning processes represent a joint effort between the community, the Board, and the ICANN organization to identify and...
  • A Story of Perseverance: Engagement in Yemen

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    The Middle East is a vast region with an estimated population of 825 million people. Over the past few years, some countries in the region have undergone unprecedented political turbulence, especially Yemen. The current civil war and political crisis in the country has...
  • ICANN and NSRC Collaborate on Training Events

    I'm a collaborator at the Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC), an organization that supports ICANN in its technical capacity building activities around the world. Over the past decade we've had the pleasure of working alongside ICANN staff to deliver several trainings...
  • Transparency of Security Efforts in ICANN: Update

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    Today, the ICANN organization published our Cybersecurity Transparency Guidelines [PDF, 17 KB], which reaffirm our commitment to a high standard of openness and transparency concerning the security of the systems and services we operate. Late last year, we identified the...
  • Update on the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) Profile

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    I am pleased to report that the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) pilot discussion group has submitted their proposed profile to the ICANN organization, which follows the requirements of the Temporary Specification for gTLD registration data. RDAP delivers...
  • Accountability Indicators Feedback 1 April - 30 June 2018

    Accountability Indicators advanced from beta to v1 in May 2018, further affirming our commitment to continuously improving accountability and transparency. Accountability Indicators is a dynamic and interactive web page that helps you view our progress towards our...
  • Improving APAC Space for a Maturing APAC Community

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    The largest community turnout in the history of APAC Space was at ICANN60 Annual General Meeting in Abu Dhabi with 100 participants. Since 2015, APAC Space has steadily grown to become the go-to platform for seasoned ICANN community members and newcomers from the Asia...
  • The Second Annual ICANN DNS Symposium

    The ICANN organization's Office of the Chief Technology Officer (OCTO) organized the second annual ICANN DNS Symposium (IDS), a one-day event focused on all aspects of the Domain Name System (DNS). IDS 2018 was held last Friday, July 13, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and...
  • A Review of Our FY18 Middle East Journey

    The year was filled with accomplishments as well as challenges for ICANN in the Middle East. As we build upon our accomplishments and learn from the challenges, we take this opportunity to present a report on our regional activities. But before doing so, we'd like to...
  • Enforcing the Temporary Specification

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    In May, the ICANN Board adopted the Temporary Specification for gTLD Registration Data, modifying our agreements with registries and registrars to comply with the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Since then, ICANN Contractual Compliance has...
  • Chair’s Blog: ICANN62 Meeting & Board Workshop

    Thank you to everyone who participated in a successful ICANN62. Our gracious hosts in Panama made the meeting experience easy, and the active participation both from those joining remotely from their homes and those in the rooms made it very productive. In addition to...
  • Office of the CTO Activities Brief: January to June 2018

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    The first half of 2018 has been busy for the ICANN organization's Office of the Chief Technology Officer (OCTO) team. We have been involved in endeavors around the globe to increase engagement with our peers and partners and improve knowledge of the Internet's system of...
  • A Review of the Middle East DNS Forum: Five Years and Counting

    When the Middle East DNS Forum reached its five-year milestone, a community survey was sent to previous participants, as well as the broader Middle East community, on 23 May 2018. The survey is aimed at assessing whether the forum has succeeded in addressing the concerns...
  • Looking Ahead to ICANN63 in Barcelona

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    I'd like to thank everyone in the ICANN community who made ICANN62 a success. Policy Forums give stakeholders in our Supporting Organizations and Advisory Committees the important opportunity to work closer together for four intensive days of policy work and outreach....
  • Co-Chairs Statement from CCWG-Accountability Meeting in Panama City

    On 24 June 2018, the Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability (CCWG-Accountability) held a face-to-face meeting in Panama City, Panama to complete its discussions on Work Stream 2. 61 members and participants attended in-person and remotely using...
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."