Identifier Systems SSR Activities Reporting
As part of our commitment to transparency and accountability, the Identifier Systems SSR department will publish periodic reports on our activities. These reports will describe the activities we perform to maintain the security, stability, and resiliency of the Internet's global identifier systems.
These activities include collaboration with ICANN, security and operations, and public safety communities, where our staff serves several roles. Depending on the engagement or request, our staff
- offers security or DNS subject matter expertise,
- facilitates cooperative action among ICANN and other communities to maintain DNS SSR,
- conducts research, or
- supports the daily efforts of security or operations communities to mitigate the misuse or harmful use of the DNS or domain name registration services.
Each activity report will highlight our collaboration and stakeholder activities (through speaking or capability building programs, often for ccTLD operators and ICANN ccNSO or GAC members). We'll summarize activities we perform as part of our identifier system SSR threat awareness and preparedness remit. We'll identify and provide progress reports on analytics or productivity improvement projects as well.
Our first report is available here [PDF, 73 KB]. Please contact John Crain or Dave Piscitello with questions, comments or suggestions.
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."