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SAC 022 | Domain Name Front Running

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A perception exists within the Internet community that monitoring or spying is taking place when would-be registrants check the availability of a domain name. In this Advisory, SSAC considers the possible financial incentives for parties to preemptively register domain names, including the acquisition of a seemingly desirable name for secondary market (auction, resale) and domain monetization (use of the domain to host paid advertising). SSAC also considers alternative explanations, including coincidence and domain tasting.

SSAC explains that a domain name availability check can be intercepted by a variety of parties, any of whom may preemptively register the queried name. SSAC observes that there does not appear to be a strong set of standards and practices to conclude whether monitoring domain name availability checks is an acceptable or unacceptable practice. Complaints presented to SSAC provided insufficient information to conclude that any party associated with the domain name registration process engages in domain name front running. SSAC concludes that checking the availability of a domain name can be a sensitive act which may disclose an interest in or a value ascribed to a domain name and calls for additional, more detailed information from registrants who suspect front running activity by parties who offer domain name availability checks.

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."