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Government Engagement Publications

Number Name Date

Country Focus Report: Russian Federation Internet-Related Laws and United Nations Deliberations

This paper is the first in a periodic series of country-specific reports that will provide an overview of activity relevant to the Internet Ecosystem and ICANN's mission. The series begins with the Russian Federation because of the important role and level of activity it is currently displaying in the global cyber ecosystem as well as its record for involvement and activity in UN bodies.

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20 January 2021

United Nations Update: Cyber-Related Discussions

This paper provides an update of the proceedings within the working groups of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), where discussions of Internet- and cybersecurity-related issues take place. Updated as of 15 July 2020.

Also available in:
Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish

30 July 2020

European Union Update: The Digital Services Act

This paper provides an update on the Digital Service Act initiative, launched by the European Union. The paper provides a background and analysis of the initiative with the potential relevance to the ICANN community and to ICANN's technical role in the Internet ecosystem.

A public consultation on the DSA initiative has been currently launched by the European Commission and will remain open until 8 September 2020. ICANN org will submit a contribution to the open consultation, and encourages the community to take this opportunity to contribute as well.

Click here to view ICANN org's response to the Digital Services Act Initiative public consultation.

Also available in:
Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish

15 July 2020

The General Data Protection Regulation 2020 Review

This paper provides an overview of the 2020 review of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and information about ICANN org's contribution to the open consultation on the two-year review exercise of the GDPR.

Also available in:
Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish

7 May 2020

European Union (EU) Policy Update

This paper provides an update on EU policy and analysis of topics, initiatives, and proposed legislation of potential relevance to the ICANN community and to ICANN's technical role in the Internet ecosystem.

Also available in:
Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish

3 April 2020

Brief Overview of UN Deliberations on Cybersecurity and Cybercrime

The paper covers cyber related discussions at the U.N. in 2019 and 2020.

Also available in:
Arabic | Chinese | French | Russian | Spanish

28 February 2020
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."