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Accountability & Transparency Review Team Final Recommendations

Open: 31 December 2010
Closed: 14 February 2011

Explanation/Background: As prescribed by the Affirmation of Commitments, the Accountability and Transparency Review Team (ATRT) now issues its final recommendations [PDF, 2.54 MB] for public comment.

العربية [PDF, 1.58 MB] Español [PDF, 2.50 MB] Français [PDF, 1.16 MB] Русский [PDF, 1.95 MB] 中文 [PDF, 2.05 MB]

These recommendations were developed on the basis of the draft proposed recommendations submitted for public comment in November 2010 and include the input received via the comment periods, email mechanisms and during ICANN meetings (38 and 39). Interviews, fact-finding and analysis led by the ATRT as well the Berkman Center’s Final Report [PDF, 3.92 MB], produced by the selected external consultant - Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University – constitute bedrocks of these final recommendations which are now submitted to the ICANN community for comments.

Under the AoC, resulting recommendations will be submitted for public comment and the Board will take action within six months of receipt of the recommendations. The community is now invited to participate in this comment forum by 14 February 2010 and to provide input on the final report.

Translations of the report will be provided.

Staff member responsible: Olof Nordling

Announcement | Comments | Summary/analysis of comments

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."