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Adopted Board Resolutions | Seoul

  1. Consent Agenda
  2. Approval of Final Implementation Plan for IDN ccTLD Fast Track Process
  3. Approval of GNSO New Constituency Applications
  4. Issues Arising from Seoul Meeting (For discussion only.)
  5. Expressions of Interest in New gTLDs
  6. Board-GAC Working Group Charter
  7. Other Business
  8. Thanks to 2009 Nominating Committee
  9. Thanks to Departing At-Large Community Volunteers
  10. Thanks to Departing GNSO Volunteers
  11. Thanks to Roberto Gaetano
  12. Thanks to Steve Goldstein
  13. Thanks to Thomas Roessler
  14. Thanks to Wendy Seltzer
  15. Thanks to Sponsors
  16. Thanks to Scribes, Interpreters, Staff, Event and Hotel Teams
  17. Thanks to Local Hosts
  18. Thanks to Meeting Participants
  19. (Adjourn 11th Annual Meeting, and Convene Organizational Meeting)
  20. Election of Board Chairman
  21. Election of Board Vice-Chairman
  22. Appointment of Membership of Board Committees
  23. Confirmation of Officers of ICANN
  24. Other Business

1. Consent Agenda

Resolved, the following resolutions in this Consent Agenda are hereby approved:

1.1 Approval of Minutes from 30 September 2009 Special Board Meeting

Resolved (2009.10.30.01), the Board hereby approves the minutes of the 30 September 2009 Board Meeting.

1.2 Approval of the Document Publication Operational Policy

Whereas, in May 2009, the Board requested that its Public Participation Committee (PPC) draw up a document publication operational policy for ICANN international public meetings.

Whereas, at its meeting in July 2009, the Board further requested that the document produced by the PPC be put out for public comment;

Whereas, the policy was put out for public comment for 30 days < http://icann.org/en/announcements/announcement-08sep09-en.htm >, during which the PPC also held an online public consultation session. Changes and additions to the policy were suggested in a summary and analysis of public input and these were discussed by the PPC;

Whereas, the PPC provided to the Board a completed Document Publication Operational Policy for approval, noting that the policy itself contains a requirement to review annually its efficacy, assisted by a report produced by staff, in the light of the experiences gained at the ICANN international public meetings;

Whereas, the intent is to provide a clear framework and guidelines for the consistent publication of work across the organization and so enable timely and wide dialogue throughout the community;

Whereas, the Committee is aware that the introduction of this Document Publication Operational Policy will have a significant impact on the organization and on its pattern of work, and that the introduction of the policy is only the first step in a process aimed at gradually improving ICANN's approach to publishing information for its international public meetings;

Resolved (2009.10.30.02), that ICANN adopts the Document Publication Operational Policy;

Resolved (2009.10.30.03), that the Document Publication Operational Policy be reviewed annually in the light of the experience gained during the previous ICANN international meetings in an effort to continuously improve the policy.

1.3 Approval of Updates to Existing GNSO Constituency Charters

Whereas, the Board approved new GNSO Stakeholder Group Structures at its 30 July 2009 meeting;

Whereas, Article XX, Section 5(3) of the recent Bylaws amendments call for existing GNSO Constituencies to submit to the ICANN Secretary a new or revised Charter inclusive of its operating procedures, adopted according to the Constituency's processes and consistent with these Bylaws Amendments, no later than October 2009, or another date as the Board may designate by resolution;

Whereas, a number of the GNSO Constituencies are still working to complete their Charter update efforts; and

Whereas, the Board expects that the substantive review of the existing GNSO Constituency charters will continue after Seoul to give the existing GNSO Constituencies the opportunity to reconfirm their status and further update their charters to ensure that they conform with the principles of the ICANN Bylaws and the GNSO Improvements process and the implementation recommendations being developed by the GNSO community;

Whereas, the SIC recommended that the Board direct staff and the community to continue their collaborative efforts, and recommended that the Board should extend the time period for the remaining Constituencies to update their charter documents.

Resolved (2009.10.30.04), the Board directs the Staff and the community to continue their collaborative efforts to substantively improve the existing GNSO Constituency charters to reflect the GNSO Improvements adopted by the Board and to seek Board reconfirmation of the existing GNSO Constituencies by the Nairobi ICANN meeting. The Board otherwise extends the time period for Constituencies to update their charter documents as described in the Bylaws Transition Article XX, Section 5(3) and asks the Staff to coordinate those efforts as soon as practicable.

1.4 Recommendation from the Compensation Committee on Senior Staff

Whereas, the Compensation Committee is charged with reviewing the performance and recommending the compensation of:

the CEO, and

the Ombudsman

Whereas, the Compensation Committee has conducted that review and made recommendations to the Board in relation to the CEO and the Ombudsman for the year ending 30 June 2009;

Resolved (2009.10.30.05), the Board adopts the recommendation of the Compensation Committee.

Resolved (2009.10.30.06), the Board adopts the Compensation Committee's recommendation in relation to the Ombudsman's contract.

1.5 Approval of Revisions to UDRP Implementation Rules for Electronic Submission

Whereas, the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) was adopted and implemented in 1999 to provide efficient and cost-effective means to resolve disputes about usage and intellectual property rights in domain names;

Whereas, the Rules for Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (Rules) set forth uniform base-line rules for UDRP Providers to follow when administering UDRP cases;

Whereas, historically the Rules have required for UDRP complaints and responses to be submitted in hard copy and electronic form to the opposing party and to the provider;

Whereas, removing the requirement for hard-copy submission of complaints and responses could result in significant reduction in paper used in UDRP proceedings and in savings on printing and postage costs, and is likely to further enhance the efficiency of the UDRP process;

Whereas, the provision of written notice of the UDRP complaint filing should still be provided to a UDRP respondent, and under the proposed amendments to the Rules, the UDRP providers must provide respondents with written notice to all physical addresses and/or facsimile numbers as required today;

Whereas, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) proposed amendments to the Rules to allow for this electronic filing implementation change;

Whereas, the proposed amendments to the Rules were posted for public comment for 30 days < http://icann.org/en/announcements/announcement-13jul09-en.htm >, and received significant support in principle, including support from UDRP providers, so long as the hard-copy written notice requirement was explicit;

Whereas, some commenters expressed concern over the ability for UDRP providers to unilaterally modify their Supplemental Rules for items that are not specifically reserved for the UDRP providers to address, which may result in conflict with the standard Rules, and potentially impact the uniformity of the UDRP process;

Whereas, subsequent to the public comment period WIPO submitted revised amendments to the Rules to make the requirement for written notice more explicit;

Resolved (2009.10.30.07), the proposed amendments to the Implementation Rules for the UDRP as proposed by WIPO on 17 September 2009 < http://www.icann.org/correspondence/wilbers-to-jeffrey-17sep09-en.pdf > are approved.

1.6 Approval of Budget for Africa Meeting

Whereas, the Board Finance Committee (BFC) at its 15 May 2009 Meeting reviewed the budget for ICANN's 2010 Meeting in Africa, discussed impact of travel costs and efforts and ideas to reduce costs for meetings;

Whereas, the Board at its 21 May 2009 Special Meeting approved the location for ICANN's 2010 Meeting in Africa to be Nairobi, Kenya;

Whereas, the Board Finance Committee has recommended that the Board approve the budget of $2.235 million for the 2010 Africa meeting;

Resolved (2009.10.30.08), the Board confirms the budget, which is not to exceed $2.235 million, for the 2010 Africa Meeting in Nairobi, Kenya.

1.7 Acknowledgment of Board Committee Reports

Resolved (2009.10.30.09), the Board acknowledges the delivery of the reports from the Board committees.

2. Approval of Final Implementation Plan for IDN ccTLD Fast Track Process

Whereas, IDNs have been available for second and lower level domain name registrations for years and under the IDNA protocol since 2003;

Whereas, the community has been discussing and working on introduction of IDNs as top-level domains based on the experiences gained during the second and lower level introductions;

Whereas, the ccNSO and the GAC were asked < http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/resolutions-08dec06.htm - _Toc27198296 > in December 2006 during the Sao Paulo meeting to "…through a joint collaborative effort, in consultation as needed with the relevant technical community, to produce an issues paper relating to the selection of IDN ccTLDs associated with the ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes.";

Whereas, the ccNSO and the GAC formed a joint working group (IDNC WG) that published and submitted to the Board a list of issues < http://ccnso.icann.org/workinggroups/final-draft-issues-idn-cctlds-iso-26jun07.pdf > relating to the introduction of IDN ccTLDs associated with the ISO3166-1 two-letter codes, in June 2007. Which resulted in the Board requesting "… that that the ICANN community including the GNSO, ccNSO, GAC, and ALAC provide the Board with responses to the published list of issues and questions that need to be addressed in order to move forward with IDN ccTLDs associated with the ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes in a manner that ensures the continued security and stability of the Internet.";

Whereas, members were appointed to the IDNC WG following the Board request, and initiated their work, which resulted in the IDNC Final Report which was provided to the ICANN Board at its meeting in Paris, France, June 2008;

Whereas, The ICANN Board approved < http://www.icann.org/en/minutes/resolutions-26jun08.htm > the IDNC final report < http://www.icann.org/en/announcements/announcement-26jun08-en.htm > for fast-track IDN ccTLDs, at the Paris meeting and directed staff to initiate the implementation of the IDNC recommendations;

Whereas, ICANN in October 2008 sought expressions of interest about participation in the IDN ccTLD Fast Track Process to inform the implementation of the IDNC WG Final report; and received 74 responses, with 31 interested in participating in the Fast Track Process, representing a total of 15 different languages;

Whereas, ICANN in October 2008 published the first Draft Implementation Plan for the IDN ccTLD fast Track process for public comments; the first revision of the plan in November 2008; the second revision in February 2009; the third revision in May 2009; and the Proposed Final Implementation Plan in September 2009;

Resolved (2009.10.30.10), the ICANN Board sincerely thanks all participants for their hard work towards making IDN TLDs become a reality through the IDN ccTLD Fast Track Process;

Resolved (2009.10.30.11), the ICANN Board directs staff to launch the IDN ccTLD Fast Track process as detailed in the Proposed Final Implementation Plan, beginning at 00:00 UTC on 16 November 2009;

Resolved (2009.10.30.12), the ICANN Board directs staff to monitor the operation of the IDN ccTLD Fast Track process at regular intervals to ensure its smooth operation, and, subject to Board review, update the process when new technology or policies become available, with the goal to efficiently meet the needs of Fast Track process requesters, and to best meet the needs of the global Internet community.

3. Approval of GNSO New Constituency Applications

(For discussion only.)

4. Issues Arising from Seoul Meeting (For discussion only.)

  1. Update on Affirmation of Commitments
  2. Update on Root Scaling Study
  3. Update on New gTLDs

5. Expressions of Interest in New gTLDs

Whereas, work continues on the remaining issues that need to be resolved by the community prior to the launch of ICANN's next round of New gTLDs;

Whereas, ICANN encourages comment on Version 3 of the Draft Applicant Guidebook for New gTLDs (on which the comment period remains open until 22 November 2009);

Whereas, the ICANN community has expressed interest in evaluating a process for calling for "expressions of interest" from organizations with serious interest in applying for a new gTLD;

Whereas, such a call for "expressions of interest" could give ICANN and potential applicants important information about the level of interest in the program and likely strings to be applied for, which could assist the resolution of the remaining issues and assist ICANN in planning for the coming new gTLD round;

Whereas, as a part of the IDN ccTLD Fast Track process, ICANN issued a call for expressions of interest, which assisted ICANN and the community in planning the launch of IDN ccTLDs;

Whereas, the community has requested that ICANN conduct further economic studies related to new gTLDs; it is noted that receiving "expressions of interest" (possibly with some financial deposit) will likely contribute to a better understanding of: 1) the economic demand for new gTLDs; 2) the number of gTLDs that are likely to be applied for; and, 3) relevant industry data;

Resolved (2009.10.30.13), the ICANN Board directs staff to study the potential impact of a call for formal "expressions of interest," and provide a plan for Board consideration at ICANN's next Board meeting, in December 2009. The plan should include possible options and a risk analysis relating to the proposed action.

6. Board-GAC Working Group Charter

Whereas, the ICANN Board of Directors on 26 June 2009 resolved to review the role of the Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC) within ICANN, by establishing a joint working group of ICANN Board Members and GAC Members (Resolution 2009.06.26.23);

Whereas, the Board of Directors / Governmental Advisory Committee Joint Working Group has commenced work, including agreement on the Terms of Reference;

Whereas, the Board Governance Committee has recommended that the Board approve the Terms of Reference;

Whereas, on 30 September 2009, ICANN signed the "Affirmation of Commitments by the United States Department of Commerce and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers", which calls for assessing the role and effectiveness of the GAC and its interaction with the Board and making recommendations for improvement to ensure effective consideration by ICANN of GAC input on the public policy aspects of the technical coordination of the DNS (Affirmation of Commitments, Paragraph 9.1.b);

Resolved (2009.10.30.14), the ICANN Board approves the Terms of Reference developed by the Board-GAC joint working group.

Resolved (2009.10.30.15), as it does its work, the Working Group may from time to time come back and consult with the Board on issues related to the Affirmation of Commitments or other issues.

7. Other Business

8. Thanks to 2009 Nominating Committee

Whereas, on 28 August 2008, ICANN appointed Tricia Drakes as Chair of the Nominating Committee.

Whereas, the Nominating Committee fulfills a crucial role in recruiting volunteers for leadership in ICANN's community.

Whereas, Tricia Drakes has led the Nominating Committee to a successful outcome.

Resolved (2009.10.30.16), the ICANN Board expresses its deep appreciation to Tricia Drakes and all of the members of the 2009 Nominating Committee for their dedication, hard work, and successful efforts.

9. Thanks to Departing At-Large Community Volunteers

Whereas, ICANN wishes to acknowledge the considerable energy and skills which members of the stakeholder community bring to the ICANN process;

Whereas, in recognition of these contributions, ICANN wishes to acknowledge and thank members of the community when their terms of service end;

Whereas, the terms of the following volunteers from the At-Large Community expire at the Seoul meeting:

  • Jose Ovidio Salgueiro - LACRALO (term began December 2006)
  • Fatimata Seye Sylla - ALAC Executive Committee – (term began October 2007)
  • Vanda Scartezini - ALAC Vice-Chair – (term began October 2007)
  • Nguyen Thu Hue – (term began October 2007)
  • Sivasubramanian Muthusamy - IDN Liaison (term began November 2008)

Resolved, Jose Ovidio Salgueiro, Fatimata Seye Sylla, Vanda Scartezini, Nguyen Thu Hue, and Sivasubramanian Muthusamy have earned the deep appreciation of the Board for their terms of service, and the Board wishes them well in all future endeavours.

10. Thanks to Departing GNSO Volunteers

Whereas, the Board called for the seating of the newly restructured GNSO Council at the ICANN Seoul meeting;

Whereas, the GNSO community has completed work necessary to achieve the transition to the new Council – including, creation of Stakeholder Groups, recommendation of Bylaw changes, and the development of updated rules and procedures for the Council's operations;

Whereas, the two longest serving members of what was originally the Names Council and is now the GNSO Council are concluding their terms at the Seoul meeting:

  • Tony Harris – Internet Service Providers and Connectivity Providers (starting 1999) and
  • Philip Sheppard - Commercial and Business Users Constituency (starting 1999)

Whereas, the following GNSO Councilors also have terms that end at the Seoul meeting;

  • Greg Ruth - Internet Service Providers and Connectivity Providers (starting 2000)
  • Tony Holmes – Internet Service Providers and Connectivity Providers (starting 2001)
  • Avri Doria - (selected by the Nominating Committee starting July 2005, and GNSO Council chair since May 2007)
  • Ute Decker - Intellectual Property Interests Constituency (starting November 2005)
  • Cyril Chua - Intellectual Property Interests Constituency (starting June 2007)
  • Carlos Affonso Pereira de Souza - Non Commercial Users Constituency (starting November 2007) and
  • Maggie Mansourkia – Internet Service Providers and Connectivity Providers (starting August 2009)

Whereas, the following Constituency Chairs have terms that end at or before the Seoul meeting,

  • Jonathon Nevett – Chair of the Registrar Constituency (starting in 2006), and
  • Steve Metalitz – Chair of the Intellectual Property Interests Constituency (starting in 2001)

Resolved, the Board thanks outgoing GNSO Chair Avri Doria for her steadfast leadership and guidance in helping the community achieve this significant benchmark in the GNSO Improvements effort.

Resolved, the Board thanks the entire GNSO community for its commitment to this effort, recognizes that substantial additional work, discussions and negotiations still lie ahead, and is committed to working on those matters with the community and the new GNSO leadership in the months to come;

Resolved, Tony Harris, Philip Sheppard, Greg Ruth, Tony Holmes, Ute Decker, Cyril Chua, Carlos Affonso Pereira de Souza, Maggie Mansourkia, Jon Nevett, and Steve Metalitz have earned the deep appreciation of the Board for their terms of service, and the Board wishes them well in all future endeavours.

11. Thanks to Roberto Gaetano

Whereas, Roberto Gaetano, was selected by the Nominating Committee to serve a three-year term on the Board beginning at the São Paulo meeting in December 2006, following his term as a Liaison to the Board, making him one of the longest-serving Board members;

Whereas, Roberto Gaetano has concluded his term at the Annual General Meeting in Seoul;

Whereas, Roberto Gaetano has served as Vice Chairman of the Board, as both the Chair and as a member of the Board Governance Committee, as a member of the Executive, Meetings and Reconsideration Committees, as a member of the Board Review Working Group, and as Chairman of the Structural Improvements Committee;

Resolved (2009.10.30.17), that Roberto Gaetano has earned the deep appreciation of the Board for his term of service as a Board Member, and the Board wishes Roberto well in all future endeavours.

12. Thanks to Steve Goldstein

Whereas, Steve Goldstein, was selected by the Nominating Committee to serve a three-year term on the Board beginning at the São Paulo meeting in December 2006;

Whereas, Steve Goldstein has concluded his term as a member of the Board of Directors at the Seoul meeting;

Whereas, Steve Goldstein has served on the Finance, Reconsideration, Board Governance, Compensation and Risk Committees, and the Board Review Working Group, the Nominating Committee Review Finalization Working Group, as well as having served as a member and Chair of the Conflicts of Interest Committee;

Resolved (2009.10.30.18), that Steve Goldstein has earned the deep appreciation of the Board for his term of service as a Director and the Board wishes Steve well in all future endeavours.

13. Thanks to Thomas Roessler

Whereas, Thomas Roessler, was selected by the Technical Liaison Group to serve as its Liaison to the Board beginning at the Cairo meeting in November 2008;

Whereas, Thomas Roessler has concluded his term at the Annual General Meeting in Seoul;

Whereas, Thomas Roessler has served as a liaison to the Public Participation Committee and as Chairman of the Nominating Committee Review Finalization Working Group;

Resolved (2009.10.30.19), that Thomas Roessler has earned the deep appreciation of the Board for his term of service as Liaison and the Board wishes Thomas well in all future endeavours.

14. Thanks to Wendy Seltzer

Whereas, Wendy Seltzer, was selected as non-voting liaison to the ICANN Board by the At-Large Advisory Committee to serve from the Annual Meeting in 2007, until the Annual Meeting in 2009;

Whereas, Wendy Seltzer has served as a liaison to the Risk Committee;

Resolved (2009.10.30.20), that Wendy Seltzer has earned the deep appreciation of the Board for her term of service as Liaison, and the Board wishes Wendy well in all future endeavours.

15. Thanks to Sponsors

The Board wishes to thank the following sponsors:

Korea Telecom, VeriSign, Inc., NeuStar, Inc., Afilias Limited, SIDN, InterNetX, Minds + Machines, IP MIRROR, Core Internet Council of Registrars, GMO Registry, Inc., Public Interest Registry, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), RegistryASP, Interlink, dotMobi, Netpia.com, Inc., Asadal, Inc., Digitalnames, EURid, .PRO, .Music, Zodiac Holdings Limited, NameAction, Inc., Central Registry Solutions, Knipp Medien und Kommunikation GmbH (ironDNS), DotAsia Organisation Limited, RU-CENTER, Inames.co. Ltd., Gabia, Inc., Whois.co. Ltd.

16. Thanks to Scribes, Interpreters, Staff, Event and Hotel Teams

The Board expresses its appreciation to the scribes, the interpreters, and to the entire ICANN staff for their efforts in facilitating the smooth operation of the meeting.

The Board also wishes to express its appreciation to VeriLan Events Services, Inc. and Rental Bank for their technical support. Special thanks are also given to Steve Morgan, Production Manager, Kris Van Der Plas, Production Supervisor, Paul Bevan, Audio Engineer, and Ted Bartles, Technical Director.

The Board also wishes to thank Domaine.info for providing photography and filming for this meeting. The Board would also like to thank the event staff at the Lotte Hotel Seoul for their support and for this beautiful facility to hold this event.

17. Thanks to Local Hosts

The Board wishes to extend its thanks to the local host organizers, Korea Communications Commission and Korea Internet and Security Agency. Special thanks are given to the Internet Name Policy Team of KISA (Korea Internet & Security Agency) for their support.

The Board also extends thanks to Mr. Choi, See Joong, Chairman, Korea Communications Commission, Mr. Ko, Heung Kil, Senator, and Chairman of the Culture, Sports, Tourism, Broadcasting and Communications Committee of the National Assembly, and Ms. Kim, Hee Jung, President, Korea Internet & Security Agency for their support and participation during the meeting.

The Board also wishes to thank Korea Internet & Security Agency (KISA) for its financial support of the Fellowship program to facilitate increased participation in ICANN.

18. Thanks to Meeting Participants

Whereas, the success of ICANN depends on the contributions of participants at the meetings;

Whereas, the participants engaged in fruitful and productive dialog at this meeting;

Resolved, the Board thanks the participants for their contributions.

19. (Adjourn 11th Annual Meeting, and Convene Organizational Meeting)

20. Election of Board Chairman

Resolved (2009.10.30.21), that Peter Dengate Thrush is elected as Chairman of the Board.

21. Election of Board Vice-Chairman

Resolved (2009.10.30.22), that Dennis Jennings is elected as Vice-Chairman of the Board.

22. Appointment of Membership of Board Committees

Resolved (2009.10.30.23), that membership of the following Board committees be established:

  • Audit
    • Rita Rodin Johnston (Chair)
    • Harald Alvestrand
    • Steve Crocker
    • Dennis Jennings
  • BGC
    • Ray Plzak
    • Rita Rodin Johnston
    • Dennis Jennings (Chair)
    • Ram Mohan (Liaison)
  • Compensation
    • Peter Dengate Thrush (Chair)
    • Bruce Tonkin
    • Rajasekhar Ramaraj
  • Executive
    • Raimundo Beca
    • Chairman of the Board (Chair)
    • Vice Chairman of the Board
    • President/CEO
  • Finance
    • Gonzalo Navarro
    • Rajasekhar Ramaraj (Chair)
    • George Sadowsky
  • IANA
    • Harald Alvestrand (Chair)
    • Dennis Jennings
    • Katim Touray
    • Thomas Narten (Liaison)
    • Suzanne Woolf (Liaison)
  • Public Participation
    • Gonzalo Navarro
    • Jean-Jacques Subrenat (Chair)
    • Katim Touray
    • Thomas Narten (Liaison)
    • Vanda Scartezini (Liaison)
  • Risk
    • Mike Silber
    • Bruce Tonkin (Chair)
    • Steve Crocker
    • Rajasekhar Ramaraj
    • Suzanne Woolf (Liaison)
  • Structural Improvements
    • Raimundo Beca
    • Ray Plzak (Chair)
    • Mike Silber
    • George Sadowsky
    • Jean-Jacques Subrenat
    • Jonne Soininen (Liaison)

23. Confirmation of Officers of ICANN

Resolved (2009.10.30.24), Rod A. Beckstrom is elected as President and Chief Executive Officer.

Resolved (2009.10.30.25), Doug Brent is elected as Chief Operating Officer.

Resolved (2009.10.30.26), John Jeffrey is elected as General Counsel and Secretary.

Resolved (2009.10.30.27), Kurt Pritz is elected as Senior Vice President, Services.

Resolved (2009.10.30.28), Kevin Wilson is elected as Chief Financial Officer.

24. Other Business

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."