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针对“通用顶级域 (gTLD) 中域名系统滥用统计分析”报告启动公共评议期

洛杉矶——2017 年 8 月 9 日——ICANN 于今日宣布发布报告"通用顶级域 (gTLD) 中域名系统滥用统计分析" [PDF, 2.23 MB]。竞争、消费者信任和消费者选择审核小组 (CCTRT) 申请进行这项调查。CCTRT 通过确定调查参数,尝试衡量域名系统中常见滥用活动的发生比率,例如:垃圾邮件、网络钓鱼、恶意软件的传播等等。这项调查旨在比对新 gTLD 和传统 gTLD 中的滥用发生比率,使用新 gTLD 项目推出头三年(2014 年至 2016 年)的历史数据,采用推论统计分析方式衡量域名系统安全扩展 (DNSSEC)、域名停放、注册限制对滥用比率所带来的影响。

针对报告提交评论

ICANN 代表 CCTRT 授权启动这项调查,从而为审核团队的工作提供参考信息。来自 SIDN 和代尔夫特理工大学 (Delft University of Technology) 的研究员执行了这项调查。

本报告将在 2017 年 9 月 19 日前征询公众意见。CCTRT 将审核对调查结论所提出的所有公众意见,并将合适的内容纳入到该审核小组的最终报告中去。

主要结论:

  • "受影响"(例如:"被黑域名")域名数量在传统 gTLD 中较多
  • "恶意注册"(例如:因恶意目的而注册的域名)域名的数量在新 gTLD 中较多
  • 注册限制似乎对减少滥用比率有一定影响
  • 滥用数量——或滥用域名的绝对数量——表明对传统 gTLD 进行滥用的频率和数量都相对较多,但新 gTLD 中的滥用活动发生比率呈上升趋势
  • 按照预期情况,根据"每 10,000 个域名中出现滥用域名的数量"这一比率计算,新 gTLD 中发生网络钓鱼和恶意软件域名的比率要比传统 gTLD 的这一比率稍低截至 2016 年底,新 gTLD 和传统 gTLD 中出现网络钓鱼和恶意软件的趋势已经慢慢趋同
  • 隐私和代理服务相关域名与不正常的高滥用率之间并无相关性

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Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as""icann.org"" is not an IDN."